An allohistorical map of North America, with an emphasis on Canada.
The idea for this map was inspired heavily by Dathi THorfinnsson's UltraCanada timeline on alternatehistory.com, with a point of divergence during the French Revolution.
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November 1793: The Vendéens were actually met by British reinforcement, as expected, after more successful communications during the Siege of Granville and are able to take the town for a while. However, seeing that they cannot hold it indefinitely, the Vendéen forces along with their families and many Granville townsfolk fearing Republican retribution, are evacuated to England.
The evacuation sets a precedent in further operations, and more people associated with the counterrevolution (royalists, clergy, etc.) are taken in by the English who are committed to supporting the Royalists. They are also willing to pick up non-combatants, often whole families, especially as a condition for men to join the Royalist/British cause. However, instead of remaining in England, these people are encouraged to go to Canada, specifically Québec, where they largely take up farming and other activities.
Once the Treaty of Amiens established peace between the United Kingdom and the French Republic, the demobilization of former Vendée forces brought them largely to Canada, rather than staying in England or returning to a republican France. A portion of French royalists also began to find refuge in Canada once peace was established.
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In this scenario, Canada experiences higher rates of immigration from France early on in its history, proving to be formative in the development of a stronger Canadian polity. By 2010, the North American continent has seen the maturing of two great powers who have often been at odds, but more often than not have relied on each other as two close brothers do. A quick (and very general) sketch of the three states presented in this map:
The United States of America, born of revolution against the British Empire, would realize the results of its antagonism against a more populated British colony to its north, culminating in the loss of the War of 1812 as well as the loss of New England. However, the eventual results of the war do not prove to present any obstacles for the young nation's ability to grow and even expand westward. Yet, the failure of the Americans to achieve parity, much less victory, in this war and in much future political and economic jostling on the continent marks the American national psyche in the decades which follow. On a present-day map, one can point out the often curious consequences of nativist or anti-British movements which have occasionally and briefly influenced American politics and society. Here, the United States has nonetheless emerged in a similar, if somewhat more muted, fashion to the one we know: a global superpower whose cultural, political, and economic might has reached far across the globe, yet which faces growing domestic ailments and increasing competition for power on the global stage. The nation gazes steadfastly towards Canada, watching the continued flourishing of its northern counterpart.
New England, having been notably less enthusiastic about war against the British for commercial reasons, declared independence from a disgruntled United States in the aftermath of the War of 1812 for reasons of self-preservation. Being able to maintain autonomy by way of formal relations with the British and strong, extensive economic ties with a number of partners (the United States included), the New Englanders have been able to maintain a marked and consequential presence on the continent despite being overshadowed by its larger neighbours. Indeed, Boston has often been able to act as a mediator between the interests of Windsor and Washington. In the present day, relations with the US have long since normalized, and the New England economy is deeply intertwined with those of the US and Canada.
Canada is, due to heavier immigration from France, decidedly more French in character. But more importantly, Canada is a lot more populous in its early history as a colony. This, broadly speaking, is a central factor in the British/Canadian victory of 1812, which would place what would become Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Champlain firmly in Canadian control and leading to the strengthening of Canadian self-assuredness, marking a watershed moment in the formation of Canadian national identity. The Canadian dominion would see its territory expand westward and northward after Confederation and, with the help of British efforts, would come to encompass a larger portion of the Oregon country, Alaska, and Greenland. While doing far better in a number of different arenas than the Canada we are familiar with, it still is fated to become the secondary power on the North American continent. This Canada is a lot more ambitious, however, taking the existence of its southern neighbour to be a challenge answered by the massive potential the nation holds. The geopolitics resulting from Canadian influence, assertiveness, and identity-making in the context of American leadership and dominance on an international scale has resulted in a long history of dynamic and interesting relations between the two countries, with the two always somewhere on a scale from warm embrace to vigorous strangling, but always somehow holding on to each other. With the outlook looking uncertain for what has thus far been called "the American Age", Canada sees itself in a position to establish itself further as an emerging world power and to embed itself at the centre of global relevance.
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For a first cartographic project, I'd like to think that I've done fairly well for myself. I feel like I've generally approximated the clean look of an online atlas, and I'm quite proud of having drawn or traced every single thing by hand/from scratch. My familiarity of the continent's coastlines has definitely increased! That being said, there are number of things I'm unsatisfied with—lakes, typographic details, the absence of a scale bar, the absence of major cities... and my rendering of a narrative for the actual (allo)historical path towards the final state of things being one of the biggest ones—but I've decided to stop before it takes up too much of my time... Perhaps, I might rework this in the future or create another map focusing solely on Canada. In any case, the first of hopefully many projects.
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04/24/14: Changed a few place names and added Canadian cities. Bolded city names indicate populations of 1 million or more.
A map of Europe circa 1920 after The Great War which ended with a narrow German victory. The victory didn't prevent Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire from falling apart though. This map is a spin-off of my Scandinavian Empire theme.
This cross was created for my friend TSgt. Daniel Vargas, USAF and all who serve and have served in the United States Air Force. Daniel had suggested that I design a cross for each of the branches of the service. This is the first of the series.
Adobe Illustrator 8.0, Apple Macintosh G4 Power Mac, OS 9.2.
"For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord." ~ Romans 8:38-39
I was reading/meditating on this verse a few days ago, and it really hit me that nothing can separate us from God's love. It doesn't matter what is going on in our lives! It doesn't matter how we feel! It doesn't matter what we have done - He will forgive when we ask. God's love will not leave us. I was thinking of the state of my country, and thinking of our future, and here it says in the verse - no powers, no things to come can separate us from God's love. Why worry and panic about an unknown future if I know that God cares for me and is in control?
Not only that, but I remembered Christians across the world who are persecuted and imprisoned daily. This inspired the picture. We could be in the deepest cell, imprisoned in darkness, without any other person to comfort us, without hope - and yet God's love is ever-present with us. We are never alone, no matter our feelings.
Pray for those who experience persecution, torture, and imprisonment for their faith.
I believe God inspired me to do this pic - I've actually never done something like this before, and never used Adobe Illustrator either, so it was a learning process. I'm really happy with it though.
What could possibly be better than a weapon that is also like 30 other weapons? Samus's Arm Cannon is like the Swiss Army Knife of video game weapons. Except your parents don't care if you play with it when you're a kid.
Excerpted From Historical Atlas of North America: Chapter 17 - The Socialist Revolution, ed. Daniel Kalinsky (1998, Doverton Press, New York)
The Confederates Surprise attack on Washington D.C. was not in fact that surprising. Although President Hanna had firmly believed that Braxton would respect internal Union affairs just as he had done to Richmond during the Houston affair, he did not realzie the depth of the hate the Confederacy harbored for the union, quite unlike the Union's general desire to ignore the Confederacy. The Union's spies in the Confederacy had quickly learned of the Confederate troop movements to the Potomac. However, with the chaotic transition to the Provisional Government after Hanna's resignation, this was lost in the confusion. Theodore Roosevelt was not even told that he was President until three days before the Confederates stormed Washington! With most American soldiers either already deserters or stationed in the cities to keep down revolutionary activity, America's once great defense empalcements were mostly abandoned. The Pinkertons, probably the unions greatest intelligence source throughout North America were in disarray, with agents being hunted throughout the country, and the President of the Company lynched in his Chicago home. When Confederate troops crossed the Potomac on fourth of May, Washington was hardly defended.
After a desultory attempt to prevent Confederate cavalry from entering the city, union forces quickly routed in a chaotic movement northward along the railways. The remaining civil servants attempted to pay thier way forward, crowding the railroad to no avail, the Confederated were quick behind. The most desperate to escape were African Americans, who by now made up a large portion of the population of the City. Many were killed by advancing Confederate troops. With the White House burning in the background, General Wilcox's forces pursued the union forces to Baltimore, where they once again routed any union resistance. An effort to organize the fleeing union troops and provide resistance at Abingdon just north of Baltimore did slow down the Confederates, however it was unable to stem the advance of the South.
To the west, Confederate armies had also advanced into Western Virginia and Maryland, destroying the mostly abandoned Union fortifications. union citizens dynamited many railways and roads as the Confederates sought to climb the Appalachians, slowing down their advance, but did not provide an opposing military force. With the Confederates advancing up the Mississippi and through Oklahoma, Braxton's prediction of a long war seemed assuredly wrong.
Although many historians and rightists have wondered if, had he been warned slightly earlier, Theodore Roosevelt would have been able to rally the Union's Provisional Armies and defend the United States, he did not, and it was not clear who was in control of any union forces at this time. It was this gap the Worker's Committees so skillfully used to seize control of the United States. Worker's Committees in Washington D.C. and Baltimore had already fought Confederate troops in their respective areas, already mobilized to fight the union troops, and had provided stiff resistance, foricing Confederate soldiers to perform Urban Warfare, they had not been organized. Here, the fact that the WCs had the support of both the National Railworkers Union, the American Railway Union, and the Telegraphers Protective League, allowed them organize the movements of hundreds of volunteer militias. The WCs seized control of a broad swathe of land from Philadelphia to New York, and immediately set about organizing a defense of Philadelphia from the Confederates. Rushing southwards, the first Worker's Militias met the Confederates at Newark Delaware. Many were veterans of the Third Confederate-Union War and immediately set about constructing trenches. The Confederates unprepared for such stiff resistance and with stretched supply lines (the Railways having been blown up by WC allied NRU and ARW forces) were forced to retreat across the Susquehanna river. The battle of Newark is notably confusing to modern history students for two reasons: Firstly, it did not take place int the well known Newark, but in Newark, DE; secondly, most of the defenders were actually from Wilmington and the surrounding area, a fact which goes against the popular image of brave Philadelphians defending the union from Confederate forces as immortalized in such Cinematics as "the Bloody Dawn". This is a continuing source of frustration to Delawareans, a frustration met mostly with confusion by other Americans.
The WCs thus provided the first clear victories against the invading Confederates, rallying many to their cause. The WC propaganda printers created thousands of posters and fliers that stated, "Join your union, fight for the Union!" and, "When you fight for the White and Blue, you fight for the Reds too!" Many Americans suspicious of the Socialists message of equality understood their fight for the North and the defeat of the hated South. Whole companies of soldiers moved to the WCs side, and with Chicago having organized the national WC Syndic, red forces moved to contain the Confederates, preventing further advances in the Appalachians by organizing the remaining soldiers and Miner's unions. The WCs were also incredibly skilled at converting factories to war work. The use of Industrial Democracy and the general feeling among Industrial Workers of the value of their work allowed conversion at a much faster pace than in previous war efforts.
The WCs were severely hamstrung in certain ways, however. The lack of a strong command structure and officer corp (most officers had moved to join Roosevelt in the west or Lodge in the Northeast), prevented the WCs from organizing an advance to reclaim Baltimore or Washington D.C. Elected officers and militias were well able to defend, but found it difficult to advance.
The Confederates however also suffered difficulties. Braxton had not realized how quickly he would be able to advance into the United States, and his plan for a decisive victory to force the U.S. to meet at the negotiating table (see figure 17.7 "Confederate War Aims") met the critical problem of not having anyone to negotiate with. Refusing to recognize the WCS in (not that Chicago would have wanted to negotiate anyways), and with the provisional Government defunct, Braxton was left with a war with undefined aims, undefined enemies, and undefined means. Guerrilla resistance in conquered territories proved a drag on the Confederate advance, and after the purges of 1895 and 1896, the Confederates had lost much of their much vaunted commanders. The Confederate forces, overconfident from the easy successes at Washington and Baltimore, often advanced without direction or purpose, a problem not helped by Braxton's famous disinterest in governing. The Confederates crossed the Chesapeake, hoping to seize Wilmington and Philadelphia from the South, but failed to supply themselves or organize themselves effectively allowing a small force of Worker's militias to prevent an advance beyond the edge of the Eastern Shore.
The WCs ability to present themselves as the effective resistor of Southern Invasion convinced many in the remaining union Navy to join the WCs. This was fortunate, for the remainder of the Potomac Fleet had been disastrously defeated by the Confederate Navy at Cornfield Harbor. The hastily organized "Worker's Navy" moved to face the Confederates at Cape Charles. Although the WN had some success they were unable to press the advantage further, and Norfolk remained safe for Confederates. The Norths traditional advantage on the seas would take several years to reassert itself.