Deviant Login Shop  Join deviantART for FREE Take the Tour

The Journal Portal

Tune into the voice of the community by checking out deviantART's Journal Portal. Join the conversation by browsing, adding faves, and leaving comments, or submit your own Journal to let your voice be heard.

Submit Journal

Community Mood

  • Love
  • Joy
  • Wow!
  • Affection
  • Adoration
  • Love 22755
  • Joy 18478
  • Wow! 4703
  • Affection 1752
  • Adoration 1069


Are highly intelligent or very talented people better able to hide their misery from loved ones, thus making it all the harder to “read” them and help them?

Vote! (58,413 votes) 1,212 comments
54,897 Deviants Online

Golden Age of Illustration

Mon Sep 22, 2014, 9:46 AM by STelari:iconstelari:

Art History Week

The 19th century marks a huge technology development, with printing techniques improving enough to make newspapers and books a truly mass-popular medium. Along with that, there appeared new opportunities for the illustrators. In the second half of the 19th century, the popularity of illustrated books and magazines reached the highest level recorded by that time and it eventually became the foundation to border the official beginning of the Golden Age of Illustration's timespan: 1880's. Formally it lasted until 1910's-1920's, with variations between Europe and North America.

The core illustrators lived a long time after this period and continued creating pictures in their style - which is defined as typical for the Golden Age. However, new styles and the slow decrease of popularity of book and newspaper illustrations (supported by the rising popularity of photography) after the World War determined the formal end of this age. The European illustrators were influenced mostly by the Pre-Raphaelites, Art Nouveau and Post-Impressionists (e.g. Les Nabis, a group of Parisian artists), and their American colleagues focused around Howard Pyle's Brandywine School of American Illustration in the Brandywine Valley.

Rackham (13) by STelariKittelsen 21 by STelari

Plenty of today's artists is inspired by the Golden Age of Illustration. You can find quite a few great ones around and outside dA, encounter their pictures in books (very rarely in magazines). Amongst the most popular ones, there should be named Alan Lee, famous for his Tolkien related illustrations and his concept work for Peter Jackson, Shirley Barber and her fairytales, or Ted Nasmith - also a Tolkien illustrator. To find illustrators inspired by G.A. on dA, I recommend visiting GoldenIllustration.

Heading back to the Golden Age itself, most of the famous European artists of this period originated in Central and East Europe - UK, France, Scandinavia, which covers the areas with the highest technology developement of that time. The names: Arthur Rackham, Edmund Dulac, John Bauer or Theodor Kittelsen are bound to the definition of the Golden Age and their works gather the essence of its characteristics.

bauer4 by STelariscan003 by STelari

Arthur Rackham

Born on the 19th of September 1867 in London. In 1892, he started working as a reporter and an illustrator for The Westminster Budget. His first major publication took place in 1894, for Anthony Hope's The Dolly Dialogues. After that Rackham became a full-time illustrator for the rest of his life.

Here you can find an article about this illustrator.

Rackham (11) by STelariRackham (12) by STelariRackham (10) by STelari

John Bauer

Born in 1882 in Jönköping, Sweden. He started sketching very early in his childhood, although there is no formal date known. In 1898, when the young Bauer was 16, he moved to Stockholm to study art and two years later he started the Royal Swedish Academy of Art. He used to illustrate a yearly fairy-tale book, Bland tomtar och troll, thanks to which he became famous in 1907 and his most popular artworks were those published in 1912-1915.

Here you can find an article about him.

bauer7 by STelaribauer6 by STelaribauer1 by STelari

Sulamith Wülfing

She was born in 1901 in Elberfeld, Rhine Province of the Kingdom of Prussia. She began drawing at the age of 4, at the same time when she started talking about seeing fairies, angels, gnomes and other nature spirits. The subjects of her drawings were those visions. For a couple of the first years of her life, Sulamith and her parents lived in a secluded area and the little girl was convinced that they were the only humans in the world.

Here you can read an article about her.

scan0015 by STelariscan013 by STelariscan001 by STelari

Theodor Kittelsen

Theodor Severin Kittelsen was born in 1857, in a coastal town of Kragerø, Norway. At the age of 11, Theodor started working for the local watchmaker. Six years later a chance for a lighter life appeared: his manual talent was noticed and 17-years-old Kittelsen started studying in Wilhelm von Hanno's drawing school in Olso. In 1889 he married Inga Dahl. Their new home, along with artist studio, was called Lauvlia. Kittelsen spent his artistic golden age there, illustrating Norske Folkeeventyr (Norwegian Folktales) from Jørgen Moe and Peter Christen Asbjørnsen.

Here is an article about this illustrator.

Kittelsen 01 by STelariKittelsen 14 by STelariKittelsen 11 by STelari

Ivan Bilibin

He was born in 1876, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Before he became a student of the great Ilya Repin, he studied at the Art School of Anton Ažbe in Munich. His illustrations to Russian faery tales from 1899 made him famous. The most recognisable pictures from that year are the ones of Vasilisa the Beautiful.

Here you can read an article about him.

Bilibin (6) by STelariBilibin (4) by STelariBilibin (5) by STelari

Cheap commissions by Rikae +pt lotery

Mon Sep 22, 2014, 12:11 PM
So i'm advertising commissions for my friend because she need some exposure

:iconrikae: has sketch commissions open for quite a while and is having a hard time finding clients lately. 
She offers sketch commissions, simple and fast :la: (and cheap!)

--Type: bust pencil sketch

--Price:  $5

Look Meg::part2 by Rikae      UTOPIA Sketch dump galore by Rikae    Well, um, thank you... by Rikae Chara design_Window by Rikae  

--payment method: paypal only

--Slots Open: 2

--How to buy? Send :iconrikae: a note with your character (or characters) references and a short info about them. She will give you her paypal. ^^ 

Check out this link where it's explained how to send money through paypal without paying fees…………

If you still see there is a fee, please take care of it on your side. ^^ :iconrikae: will be charged a fee anyway when taking the money out of paypal, and i wouldn't want her to be charged twice from this ammount that is small anyway.

So commissions her if you like her sketches, you'll really help her out :D

And if you don't have money for it you can +fav this journal so others see it. And here's a little incentive to +fav it, in a few days i will randomly pick a person who faved this journal and give away :points:100 


Created at | Banner created by C-91

Light Hunters Feature #88

Journal Entry: Mon Sep 22, 2014, 7:38 AM

Enjoy some of the recent additions to our gallery

This Journal Skin was designed by Night-Beast

Art History: Introduction

Mon Sep 22, 2014, 12:00 AM by DistortedSmile:icondistortedsmile:

Art History Week

Art History Week 22nd - 28th September

Art History was a Project started by the Community Relations Team in 2011. It's aim was to engage the community by looking at the origins and beginnings of the art we all so passionately love today.

As a Team, it's easy for us to become insular and confined within the galleries we moderate and the genre-communities we support. When in reality our passion and knowledge stretch to other realms of the artistic universe, often from school days or independent education we've searched for. The same is, I'm sure, for the wider community.

Frequent authors of articles include: KovoWolf  Peter-The-Knotter Talty lintu47 Kaz-D STelari

This meant we wanted to open it to everyone: all members of dA and irrelevant of your current profession or specialisation. If you're knowledgeable and confident on a topic then the stage is yours :)

In 2012 we opened the ArtHistoryProject group, to create a dedicated space for the articles that were coming in from the community.

From the group, the first phase we completed dedicated a month to each major Gallery; Traditional, Photography, Digital, Lit etc. Over the next 12months, over 250 articles were submitted through ArtHistoryProject, by hundreds of deviants.

At the end of 2013 we started the second phase of the Project, which would display all articles in chronological order, inviting even more talented deviants to participate and explore art together.

Since the start of the Project, over 400 articles have been created by members of deviantART

In the summer of 2014, the Community Relations Team made the decision to merge the ArtHistoryProject group with projecteducate, to continue the momentum and energy needed to sustain projects of this size. We combined the CV Admin team of both projects and have enjoyed even more participation and interaction from the community for both ventures.

The Art History featured weeks will be regular and can include features, contests, education pieces, interviews, chat events and much more. The frequency, of course, depends on YOU! ;)

I hope you enjoy the week as an artist, a contributor or simply as someone with a hunger to learn more and revel in the knowledge and skills of others.



Art History Week

1 Series Title by Peter-The-Knotter


Welcome to Part Three! (Please note: illustrations may be clicked, to increase size and readability...)
In some ways, this period, from approx 1450 - 1800,  was the "Golden Age" of knotting. The two main reasons I call it this is due to:
A: The flowering of all things nautical, which as you can imagine, gave a profound boost to all things "Knottical" and, with the march of progress towards the "Industrial Revolution" and steam-driven ships and land-based coal and oil power also heralded the slow demise in many areas of the use of knots in many professional areas. and:
B: The increase in exploration, discovery and colonisation, which served to increase the types and forms of knots that were invented for various purposes from transport, and military use to fashion and a rapidly developing leisure industry including a new territory for knots: The Theatre. So, without further ado, let us now look at the increasingly diverse "Knot" in this era containing an explosion of creativity and art from Leonardo and Michelangelo to Shakespeare and that added macramé as a royally-fashionable "Pass-time"; an incredible variety of new knots and braids to the already famous pantheon of practical knots.  Like the first and second parts in this 7 part series, I shall focus on a very few areas to show the diversity of some knotting techniques - and mention in passing enough other areas to put those I’ve highlighted into some sort of context. By the time the series is done there should be enough detail to show some of the depth, and enough references to show some of the scope that knots actually have...

P3 1 by Peter-The-Knotter


People were producing lots of babies.  Forget: "Breeding like rabbits!", guess what phrase rabbits have for it..... and to cater for the needs of all these little humans, people needed to spread out, seeking new spaces with which to create homes and extension's of their home countries. Just one problem: quite often, there were people already there. More on this a bit later...

Japan didn’t have any Empire of colonies, and didn’t want any commerce with the "Gaijin"
This state of affairs was principally the diktat of the Shogun victors of the “Sengoku” or: “Warring States” period of Japanese history.  This period was probably the most famous one to westerners with it’s Samourai warriors, (fig 1, E) it’s flowering of the arts including the famous “Geisha” with her poetry, shamisen-playing, (fig 1, B),  and poetry or haiku; The beginning of the production of those famous woodblock printed posters, invitation cards and books, (fig1, A),  that are part of the collection of almost every art museum worth it’s name from Ougadougou to Ottowa was very much associated with the 17th to nineteenth centuries in Old Edo.    So what does all the preceding have to do with knotting?  Lets start with Japan, as a culture I mean... Many of the utensils, tools and technologies in Japan remained “simple and traditional” by our “western” definitions,  whilst similar western techniques rapidly moved on in complexity and “achievement” and simpler, hand-made techniques were slowly  discarded in favour of powered, mechanically-assisted or less labour intensive systems. The Japanese, meanwhile, kept their hand-made Kumihimo (”Braided Silk” - fig 1, H), which, amongst many other uses,  secured clothing in a world where most garments were tied closed using knotted cords , (fig 1, E) to secure the gowns and shirts.  Amongst the arts which had knots used as decoration and ornament was  religion, (both Buddhist and Shinto), where shrines were decorated with ropes and folded or knotted paper prayers...The most famous use of Kumihimo was probably  holding  together the armour of the period (fig 1, E, G, F). There were many schools that taught Kumihimo and they jealously guarded their individual patterns, divulging them only to students once assured of their loyalty.  Other uses of kumihimo included securing money, pouches, fans and other items to a waist belt.
P3 2 by Peter-The-Knotter

Knotted ropes were also used to help erect the famous wooden houses and temples many of which had very few, if any, nails used in their creation. Ropes were used in sailboats, fishing, kite-flying and many other aspects of Japanese society including festivals where the “Tug ‘O War” with huge rice straw ropes like those used to decorate the temple entrances, was sometimes a feature.  The Geisha had,  as I’m sure you know, a very elaborate coiffure and clothes to enhance their innate attractiveness using embroidery, fabric-based sewn origami-like items like the “Kanzashi” resembling the flowers of the current season , and worn in the hair as in fig 1, B, above.  Knots and strings figured on their clothes and as well as an essential part of their instruments. Printing used the “Baren” (fig 1, C),  a major tool used to “impress” the ink onto the paper and is made from a coiled, plaited length of plant-fibre covered and knotted.    Hokusai was arguably, the most famous woodblock-printmaker and artist to survive via his works to this day.  The books used in Japan, (fig 1, A). were all held together by knotted threads and cords. Fig 1, D shows an Inro or pill box.


Spain and Portugal had a few colonies... but wanted more  ...and more did the Dutch, the English, The Germans, the....

1: The Galleon: Pawn of the Spanish State and Privateer Par Excellence
It was the early 1500's and the “Western” attitude, “Old World” that is to say, ...believed that expansion was the only way to proceed. This implied colonisation, and as a general consequence: conquering.  The prime requirement to implement this was transportation, both land and sea. Most ships were unwieldy, and were mostly coastal-hugging affairs designed to transport goods to neighbours or  across short expanses of water like the Adriatic, Mediterranean, various gulfs and small seas.. however, since most of Europe and Asia was in very secure hands already, it was necessary to travel further abroad. Ships, from the 15th to the 19th century, became bigger, faster and more streamlined up to the point where the elegant four-masted barques and clipper ships, with as many as 80 sails or more, started giving way to steam power, by which time, much of the planet had been discovered and laid claim to...  but, nonetheless, ropes and cables, splices, bends and knots were still a very important feature of transportation and colony building via their use as cargo nets, lashing down cargoes, lifting and lowering goods and stones when building and creating harbours, customs houses and other building works.  Naturally enough I shall not pass up the opportunity to extol the virtues of maritime knots and cordage, see fig 2...

2: Learning the ropes...
In fig 2A can be seen a typical Spanish galleon of the 16th-17th  century. after which they didn’t change much until they began to disappear in favour of larger and more efficient vessels in the 18th and 19th centuries. A Galleon typically had 3 masts and a bowsprit or angled sail-retaining pole poking forwards of the ship.  There were about 32-40 distinct shrouds or lines that were associated with the working of each mast. and it’s sails. There was also the “Ratlines” a form of rope ladder allowing access to the upper parts of the masts in order to loose the sails, and reef them:  or gather them to the spar  they are suspended from until they are again required, (the original use for the “Reef” knot which does not jam even when soaked in salt water, and is easily tied and capsized)

As well as the basic mast lines and ratlines, there are the lines securing moveable objects to the various decks like the cannon, from which we get our expression: “A loose cannon” which is very heavy and can easily kill an unwary sailor if it’s unsecured and rolling around on the deck with each lurch  and tilt of the ship.   There are also the knots that secure the bunks to the bulkheads for sailors to grab a few hours sleep when they could, as well as the fastenings on their personal canvas “Ditty” bags, sometimes with the famous “Theif” knot, (see Maritime Links)

P3 3 by Peter-The-Knotter

Other lines and their associated knots, served to hold the capstans and steering wheel fast, connect the ends of the anchor lines or chains to the capstans used to reel them in, (known as “The Bitter End” because it was the last section of anchor line that could be lowered; ... and if the anchor still didn’t touch bottom, the ship could be lost...) Old shellbacks, as sasilors were sometimes called, would share and exchange knots for favours or tobacco etc, as some knots like the star knot wee prized by the crew as they could create trade goods with them or impress their sweethearts.  By the way, the wrists of these sweethearts would sometimes be decorated by a turks head  tied by their salty lover...

All in all there were thousands of metres of line to secure, maintain and replace whilst under way, with different slip knots, bends, knob knots and others that needed to be learnt before a man was considered an “Able” seaman... ie one who knew the ropes and knots required to operate a fully-rigged vessel. Sailors would also tie knots as decorations on spars and posts aboard ship, mostly turks heads, to help brighten up the ship and exhibit of it’s crew which redounded to the Captain’s  reputation.  Since the captain was also responsible for navigation, any battle tactics and strategies as well as the welfare of his crew and doing whatever merchant or military duty he was commissioned to do, it was easy to understand the reputation of Captains as sometimes harsh and expecting absolute discipline since a single sailor could create a perilous situation out of reach of any help...

When these galleons anchored of islands, they were often met by canoes full of islanders eager for the trade items that the crew offered as well as conducting official business or politics.  As well as all this, there would sometimes be various replacement colony staff to replace those retiring, and biologists to gather information for their home countries’ eager scientists.  These floating villages, therefore, fulfilled many roles at the same time from resupplying colonies, making initial advances and forays into new territory, and patrolling the seas for the benefit of their own trade routes. Galleons had about 22 cannon and a few small grapeshot pivot-mounted guns for fore and aft protection.

At the end of this article will be some illustrations and diagrams of the knots discussed in this section, together with a few pictures of the sorts of goods traded by crew including scrimshaw...

P3 4 by Peter-The-Knotter


During the 350 years covered by this article, oh so briefly!, knots helped in many ways to ease the life of, notably, the better off financially, of course...,  as more and more variety in goods landed on the shores of the main colony founding European countries.  The fantastic riches in the form of precious metals, spices, carvings and carpets; and much more poured into the the houses of the landed gentry who were often, also, the politicians, rulers and senior officers of the armies and navies of the old world....  Merchant-adventurers formed companies to supervise the trade on behalf of the state for a royal recompense and grew fat and wealthy on the native gullibilty or as we call it: trust... as an example, The famous “East India Company” did this for the British empire in India and the far east.  Since much of what was produced by newly-discovered countries was very labour intensive, yet cheap due to the use of slaves or workers who weren’t much better off, the profit margin was often huge.  One of the most knot-laden industries was rug and carpet making. See fig 3.

As architecture advanced and people required greater comfort, rugs and carpets were in great demand to ease the cold of interiors and soften the hard floors in houses; particularly on the ground floor which could often still be stone flags.  The most famous areas for hand-made (until the industrial revolution), carpets was the near and middle east in countries like Turkey, Iran. Iraq, Pakistan, (then still part of India), and the far east: China, Laos etc.  The finest came from persia, turkey and western Russia.  In the steppes of central asia, (to quote a lovely piece of music), the nomadic herders created felt coverings for their yurts and other moveable homes. They were lined, like the Bedouin tents of N.  Africa with rugs and bits of carpet. |These carpets were knotted on looms that were horizontal, (often the nomadic rug-weavers and carpet-makers), and vertical, (usually in established workshops in towns and villages).

Fig 3, A shows the main knots used to tie the pile into the warp and weft of traditional knotted carpets.  Fig. 3 B+I, show two samples of hand-woven / knotted carpets of the type made in the 17th-19th centuries in Persian towns and in the city of Bokhara, originally named after the sanskrit word for “monastery” ie: “vikhara”. Bokhara's history, (fig 3, C),  is one of the more picaresque ones amongst the stops written about on the famous "Silk Road".  The romantically viewed city of Samarkand that figured in 8th -18th century tales and many a story of mysterious deeds of in Victorian fiction,  and  is just a short distance to the west. It's famous carpets were, and still are one of the jewels in Uzbekistan's trading crown.   The Ark Fortress of the city's despotic ruler, Nasrullah, has had it's torture chambers and cells replaced by Artisan workshops....There are some magnificent examples of Islamic architecture also, one of which rivals the Main Mosque at Ispahan (fig 3, D).   Silk, a material that even Roman Emperors found hard to afford, was just one of the products carried in the caravans that continually ferried goods to and from the far east to Europe including rugs and carpets.  The best carpets are still made in the same way, though silk ones are now out of reach of any but Museums and Oligarchs and Billionaires... a mere million doesn’t go so far these days...

A spin-off from the production of carpets, is the creation of knotted tassels to secure the warp threads and a decorative finish, which sometimes had intricate, lacelike, qualities and feel.  Queen Mary fig 3, H, on one of her travels, picked up the rudiments of this art, (in Italy I believe),  which, like “Punto a Groppo” (also made in Italy), formed part of the parentage of the craft of Macrame. Queen Mary popularised macrame in England and Holland.  The Victorians picked it up again and it became a desirable skill to be found in house-bound, dutiful,  wives and daughters, who used macrame for edge lace, decorating furniture, and finishing-off embroidered runners, anti-macassars and the like.  Carpets, of course, got dirty and were from time to time beaten when draped, outdoors on lines. The tools used to beat them were originally simple sticks but then tools like the rattan knot-formed beaters, fig 3, F, were created and soon any household with carpets in Europe had them... right up till the 1950's in most households.  Many carpets were actually designed as door-curtains, wall hangings for insulation and furniture coverings. Many other fibre based, knotted crafts went on in these centuries, which, although labour-intensive,  was relatively cheap for many European countries because pay was so low that it often amounted to slave labour. In south America, weaving and braiding were achieving a high degree of skill and were very colourful indeed... like the costume and attitudes of the local folk.

D: Intermezzo: A Few Salient Uses of knots

:bulletpink: The Key to Electricity Franklin, when conducting his experiment on conducting lightning electricity from a storm to a leyden jar, (a form of storage capacitor),  via a key attached to a kite avoided dying like previous experimenters who used metal poles stuck in the ground... The increased height allowed him to stay on the ground and the kite was less likely to electrocute him. According to the legend, Franklin kept the string of the kite dry near his end to insulate him while the rest of the string was allowed to get wet in the rain to provide conductivity.

:bulletpink: Not another S.I. Unit!Lines with knots in them, attached to a log, were tossed overboard and used to define the speed of sea-craft - now known as nautical miles per hour or: Knots. (FIG 2, C) The log was refined into a self-righting triangle that helped resist forward movement, ie following the ship.

:bulletpink: The Civilisation that couldn't write it's name: The South American Inkhan Empire didn't have writing so they used a system of knots of various sizes tied in cords instead. The "Quipu" as it was known, used, usually woollen, threads; they used also had colour codes, (usually two twisted threads of two colours),  which resulted in them being able to create "knotted Databases" of everything from the number of sandals made in a particular village, to the amount of maize grown by another village in a particular year... until most of them were burnt, destroyed or lost by the invading Spanish like Cortes and Pisarro in the 16th century: the Spanish thought Kipu's were heretical items, thus, only a few hundred or so still exist... there were, without doubt hundreds of thousands considering the time span of the empire.

:bulletpink: The Kipu Express: Inkans also had  a system of relay messenger huts along the main roads, a bit like the pony express, but several hundred years earlier, without riders, and without ponies... ( maybe a different metaphor?),  with which quipus could be relayed as much as 150 miles each day... not bad at all for foot messengers.....

:bulletpink: Luvale Bark Rope Currency This type of rope, (a flat, brown, bast fibre),  was collected in Western Zambia and strip-cut from from bark and stored. The Luvale and other Tchokwe related peoples from central Africa use the rope to bind timbers and canes with, during the construction of their homes, fish traps and basketlike packaging; and, unusually for a fibre, used it as a form of currency due to the effort of gathering it.

:bulletpink: The Legendary Origin of the Matthew Walker Knot Matthew Walker, an old shellback who had been incarcerated on hearsay evidence in the East Indies, and was unfortunately looking forwards to a hangman’s noose on the morrow,  heard the door to his cell open on the day of his court appearance before the governor.  It was in fact, the Governor himself.  Like many a governor, he had, at the right moment, changed from a Freebooter to a Privateer with papers from an English Admiral, and had performed his duty very well...with naturally a modest personal profit,  and set himself up as a gentrified  resident of the island.  promotion to governor came after a few years to prove his “honesty”- what better than setting an ex theif to catch others?  |So it was that this governor looked on a fellow mariner and asked him: “Did you do it?” to which the poor sailor replied: “No” then sighed and sat in the corner.  The governor said: I tell you what, if you can tie a knot that I cannot both untie and tie up again, we’ll call it an “act of god” and I’ll release you”

Matthew asked for a fathom of rope and privacy, which he was accorded, the governor returning after half an hour as requested. The tar tossed the rope to the judge who couldn’t see the knot, just a slight kink in the cable so he grinned and said: “You’ve earned your pardon, now show me that blasted knot!” And with a relieved heart the sailor happily revealed the unlaying of the strands and the knot insertion that simply imitated the lay of the rope it was tied with, after which the strands were re-laid finishing off the  procedure leaving what appeared to be a slightly kinked rope...again... which has been called the “Matthew Walker” ever since.

:bulletpink: The Tail of the Monkeys Fist This heaving-line knot, ( a knot with a heavy metal core to throw a thin line ashore in order to use it to drag across a much heavier one -to make fast a ship usually-), was named after the way that certain islanders caught monkeys by hollowing out a coconut, drilling a hole and tying it to a tree. Finally, to set the trap a peanut was placed inside. the inquisitive monkey would smell and sense the peanut and would insert his paw to grasp the peanut-which made him turn his hand into a fist - which cannot be withdrawn through a hole only just big enough for a monkey's paw... even when the trap-setter approached, the monkey was too stubborn to let go of his nut and was captured.

P3 5 by Peter-The-Knotter


I thought I would include an extra section on some of South America due to the incredible variety of resources and what they achieved with fibres.  In the early 16th century,  Francisco Pizzaro arrived and after a civil war had recently been won by the current Inka, summarily beat that Inka, called Atahualpa. The spanish demanded of the  Incan Empire, ( which included parts of Columbia, Chile, Peru (the birthplace of the empire in about 1280), Bolivia, Argentina and Ecuador),  a ransom for Atahualpa, who  got his people to fill a room with gold,  (fig 5, A),  known by the native populations as: The Sweat of the Sun, and silver, known as:  The Tears of The Moon.  Atahualpa was executed in due course anyway...  Much of what the Spanish thought was pure gold, was, in fact a blend of gold and copper called: Tombaga, which was  used for much of their decorative work.

Apart from supplying the rest of the planet with coffee, chocolate, rubber and many other amazing materials, the Inca’s Mayans and Aztecs also had various techniques to benefit so-called advanced races.  Here, however, I shall simply relate 2 or 3 things relating to the Inca’s people.  By the way: “The Inka  / Inca” is a title for the leader of the Empire composed of amongst other tribes, principally the Quechua, whose language was the Incan official tongue. Part of a successful empire is an efficient infrastructure and system of record-keeping.  The infrastructure of roads and canals dug to supply water to all the settlements in the empire was a marvel of hydro-engineering; as was the Quapaq Nan or “Incan Path” now a world heritage site which allowed the people to reach all parts of their empire.  Part of this road was supported by an Incan first: the suspension bridge.  These bridges, (fig 5, D), of which only one still exists, near Cusco, , were made of grass twisted into rope and required renewing each year due to biological decay.

So much for routes and water, another facet of their infrastructure was buildings and walls. Given the “crudity” of tools available, the Incas produced walls of incredible complexity due to the fact that they fit together in such a close way that a thin knife-blade can’t be inserted between the stones.  One theory consists of  using a lashed tool with an attached plumb-line, to trace the correct shape to be cut in the next block, (fig 5, F),  by tracing the green end across the face of the rock already in place - which means the red end will mark out the face of the next stone to be inserted. The  plumbline, remaining between the two white marks, keeps the whole transcription device parallel and, therefore, accurate. Records are the other facet of a successful empire but, there was a small problem: the Inkan Empire never learned to write; instead, they developed the quipu, (fig 5, C1-2)

There is much that may be related about the Inca, their military system, unusual games played, their religion of sun worship (fig 5, B), and nature spirits as well as the many other South American tribes and Northern America ones also, but, after inserting a sample of woven Inca cloth from about 1550, (fig 5, G), We shall leave this brief detour to return to our  track working  towards the 18th century....
P3 6 by Peter-The-Knotter





Firstly, two great blogs on Kumihimo ,their  types and uses,  by Rod Byatt ("Japanese Textiles: from a Westerner's perspective")
A: Article on “Temple Braid”: Kumihimo – Chusonji-gumi*: June 28, 2009…  *The Kumihimo of Lord Hidehira: "the Chusonji kumihimo”
B: Article on “Armour Braid”:…

A: Using a Marudai
Here is a no-nonsense flat kumihimo braid demonstration with clear marudai use and useful tips, a good vid.
B:Using a foam (Portable)marudai the principles are the same as prevailed in Japan, except that there is some evidence to suggest that most braids were tied “in hand” before braiding stands like kakedai etc were invented...

Some samples of Marina del Bruyere's gorgeous  embroidery for which she learnt to make kumihimo accessories (drawstrings etc)
Some fabulous samples of Kumihimo plus  Mistresses of the Art from Japan and elsewhere with some modern braiding stands.

The Textile Society  
International Guild of Knot Tyers  
The Association of Guilds of Weavers, Spinners and Dyers  
Japanese Kumihimo Society


Types of Carpets "Kelim", "Pak-i-stani Bhokkara", ... these and others are romantic names to conjure with in the world of carpets. Even contemporary Bhokaras of say, 3m x 2m can be £1.5k or more... Wiki Link:
Techniques and Types of Rug Knots Using the Senneh  & Turkish Knots, this superb article on Knotted Carpet Techniques`includes both horizontal and vertical looms, and other allied processes with some period photo's and is available in French or English versions.
Azerbaijani Carpets:Weaving  workshop
Charley’snavajo rugs shows a lovely range of tribal weaving traditions... simply scroll down the page.


Ascher & Ascher: “Mathematics of the Incas: Code of the Quipu”, Quite simply the best book on the quipu there is.
Rodrick Owen: “braids: 250 Patterns from Japan, Peru and beyond” one of the three or four best books on this subject!

Cusco's Textile Museum: El Centro De Textiles De Cuzco (Spanish/English text)

The British Museum's Lost Kingdoms of South America section on their excellent online site.

3 empires: A documentary from the point of view of technical achievements as well as a brief history on THE AZTEC, MAYA AND INCA in English

Peruvian Weaving: Article on the history of Peruvian weaving by the Andean Air Mail & PERUVIAN TIMES newspaper (5/5)
Ceremony of the Sun: Racquel from Wisconsin's informative blog on the Ceremony of the Sun at Cusco, in Spanish but 95% excellent narrative photography. Well worth a good look!
Overview of Peru: Peru Facts

Spotlights on... #19

Mon Sep 22, 2014, 10:24 AM

My last college year has just begun. :stare: 
Thus I'll probably step aside from writing; I'll try to post a new text every week as I usually do though. But things might get even busier. Anyway, it's the final countdown. :)

I feel like an asocial person, I haven't talked to you guys for days, even weeks. I miss you all, and I really wish you're all alright. Again, things were busy and probably will be for a long time.
I even thought about leaving a farewell message but the inspiration I got for my last text (which will be posted in a few weeks) proves me I'm not done yet with writing. 

Have a nice week. :la:

Plum facts #12 :  Is there an effective way to reveal unknown and yet talented artists here? From what I've seen so far, people only like and feature their friends' works (which is obviously understandable). As if... recognition was obtained thanks to string pulling. 

I am a dummy! DEVIANTS AND DEVIATIONS I am a dummy!

kilkegard  : Very smart, wise and cultivated man; I respect him as a person and as a writer.
HeleneLumiere : Amazing photographer and a special friend to me. 
anticodac : Genuine and inspired writer, with a certain taste for art.
Mrs-Durden : Recent CV, she's also got a fantastic community spirit and her outspokenness is something rare here.

ocean spraymy languid blood flows in my veins, drunk off
the sweat lacing your goddess skin. the sea
hides behind the shadows in your eyes, reflecting
the power of the bare moon. i am captivated
by the heaviness of your body, the symphony
of your tongue against mine -- you worship me
in a language i don't understand, but together
we wax strong under the star speckled sky.
9-3-14that low wall to death
crumbling slowly being pushed
out and down the passage in
not being adequate to the need
of an unused abandoned cemetery
stones worn weary of names their
burden of carrying on after death
preserved until those too are dust
blown on the wind still carrying a name
some memory of the mistakes made in it
waitng to be trapped under fingernails
as some mistakes should be learned from
but others should be repeated
FrustrationTell me
Why did you leave me alone
Turn around
And walk away?
Was I nothing more
But a shoulder to cry on
The one to solve all the problems
You felt left alone with?
It's been over a year
Since you last said a word
Since then I seem to be a stranger
Just another abandoned island
In your sea of sorrow
Not a single word
Not a small, random hello how are you
What do you fear?
I've never bitten, I never scratched
Not like you who've hurt me every time we met
I think I know what you're afraid of
Because you've still fallen for the shadow
Scared of it being taken away
Leaving you back naked with nothing
Nothing more but your darkest fears
I'm reaching out my hand for you
But it's your turn now to take it
Take it or keep on running into destruction.
It's your choice.
we redefine still. we redefine wild.ripped up
and tossed aside,
he is society's slut.
while i am open,
open for you to take me
and take me you will.
roar of skeleton sex,
lungs crushed,
hearts beating in socratic time,
and take me you will.
take me as my delicate own
rather than another marionette stem
shooting, spurting
Let's Go HomeThere she sits,
Alone and afraid,
She clutches her best friend close,
It’s soft fur giving her comfort,
But her teddy bear won’t bring her a future,
The walls around her dance,
Shadows of a life that could have been,
Dreams that are too far to reach,
But her heart keeps on beating,
Her princess dress is worn and tattered,
The color has faded,
What once was pink is now gray,
Her shoes have holes,
But she still moves forward,
The walls around her dance,
Music plays in a far off world,
She stands up and moves forward,
Is this dream too far to reach?
She can see the way out,
Her little hands try to turn the door knob,
But it’s locked and she has no key,
There she falls,
And stares at the light underneath,
The walls around her dance,
Shadows of a life that could have been,
Dreams that are too far to reach,
But her heart keeps beating,
Tears cover her face,
Can they wash away the pain?
She stands and pounds on the door,
Please someone, she whispers,
I just want to be loved,
Hope Is GlueI was being consumed by sorrow,
and was saved by my blade.
The void decreased to a manageable level,
and now I don't feel like I need to end everything.
Cautiously I reach out beyond my scope of vision.
The world is cloaked in shadows,
but for the first time in ages I feel hope.
Will shattering always end like this?
I'm not sure how to think of myself.
I mean,
the voices are always saying things I don't want to hear.
Other people worry and try to change me.
Maybe they are right,
but I think I am more than they realize.
I have been remade yet again.
Stronger I hope.
Shattered pieces don't always fit,
but the glue of hope helps keep it all together.
It's only when the darkness steals all hope that I am shattered yet again.
When I dieWhen I die, a certain angel, who I have known nearly half my life, will spread his  impressive feathered wings and fly down to meet me and pick me up.
Our souls and the whole world will rejoice at the heavenly reunion.
We´ll spend two, never ending, wonderful weeks together on holiday at the same place we met all those years ago.
The warm sun will be good to us and will tan our youthful skin. We´ll walk hand in hand  together along the sandy shore into the slowly sinking sunset without a care in the world.
Our love renewed, our hearts beating as one, our world once again in unison.
Peace will reside once more.
by Suzanne Karbach                           09.09.2014

Blinkers and Fluffy Feet by jojo22Dandelions 12.08.2014 by Sasha-DrugMy Recent Tyrannosaurus Sculpt (4) by ak1508Afro Head by cumilousLet me out. by SheilaBrinsonUntitled by clalepaSuperb starling by Ada-Vogtlight in darkness by wallawallawAmong the Ruins by Kurtzan

Smile! Encouraging journal / feature

Journal Entry: Mon Sep 22, 2014, 2:31 AM
I always wondered, why people smile so rarely. Almost no one is doing that nowadays, when they pass you, looks at you in the bus, giving you the change in the shop. You never know what a person is going through now. Maybe they need anything to bright up their day?

A warm smile is the universal language of kindness.
vamos brincar? by DeborahWerling Smile... by a-place-of-hiding My Cowgirl 2 by Paigesmum
Beautiful blue eye'd girl by ambino20 Finally by LegendInfinity Little Lola by sweetnov86

It is the shortest distance between two people. 
  Sweet kiss by Laxmi-Arts turn turn turn by Hart-Worx Stealth by papar00lzmommy and baby II by mchlwlsh Undeniable Love by Jaffa-Cam yours truly by ntscha
A gentle word, a kind look, a good-natured smile can work wonders and accomplish miracles.
 two good friends by VaggelisFragiadakis You don't have to move by IndieChild19 Me! by FukuroBenBug Eyed by forever-learning heavy metal pirate by bLuBBapho Lean on me by christinephotog
Smile, it is the key that fits the lock of everybody's heart.
Heroes by datene the 1th of september by Vajre  Show the world how it is by Nirvagirl
Sunchild by ivifaith __ by birthday29 found by javiartd
Keep smiling because life is a beautiful thing and there's so much to smile about!
smile by lil-joint
Remember to smile, it will always make someone (and yourself) feel a bit better! :happy: 

You can see more pictures in my collection - Made me smile :) I sometimes go through it and then I just feel much better... My cheeks are hurting so much because of all the pictures above, I was smiling all the time while doing this feature! :D

This feature is also for Windklang's contest :)

I used this beautiful, colorful skin of Inconcabille . Her other artworks (also with a smile :D):
[ Water Heart ] by Inconcabille [ Uthelia ] by Inconcabille [ Qzayl ] by Inconcabille

Thank you :)
:iconwindklang: :iconinconcabille:

Happy Birthday to Bilbo and Frodo!

Journal Entry: Mon Sep 22, 2014, 7:57 AM
Skin by TMNT-Raph-fan

It's September 22nd, Bilbo's and Frodo's birthday! Let's celebrate it together with a little feature!


The Party Tree. Bilbo's eleventy-first Birthday. by jgilronan
Happy Birthday, Bilbo Baggins! by h-muroto
A Special Toast by KisTithen
Happy Hobbit day! by ValiChan
Bilbo, you're drunk. by Robynium
Happy 111th Birthday by Tenshi-Inverse
Bilbo's birthday party by Opareq
HAPPY Hobbit Day! by Fairygodflea

Interview 58. 22.09.2014.

Journal Entry: Mon Sep 22, 2014, 12:28 AM

Hello !

Today interview with BlueIvyViolet from Canada, at dA: 5 years.

dedicated to...part 8 by BlueIvyVioletdedicated to...part 7 by BlueIvyVioletdedicated to..part 10 by BlueIvyViolet

:bulletblue: 1 Which type of art are You creating ?
Marilyn - I do photography.

Happy Birthday Jim by BlueIvyVioletHappy Birthday Cary by BlueIvyVioletHappy birthday to... by BlueIvyViolet

:bulletblue: 2 Why this kind of art ?
Marilyn - I love taking pictures of flowers, sunsets/sunrises and of course my 3 dogs

Rocky 1 by BlueIvyVioletBear by BlueIvyVioletJake by BlueIvyViolet

:bulletblue: 3 When did You started create Your art?
Marilyn - I have always loved taking pictures, especially of my kids when they were little, but since joining DA 5 years ago and seeing all the beautiful pictures of flowers and sky pictures..I thought, maybe i will try that!!

Happy Birthday Marta!!!! by BlueIvyVioletHappy Birthday Amy!! by BlueIvyVioletIn My Thoughts by BlueIvyViolet

:bulletblue: 4 What kind of art do You like to watch the most?
Marilyn - I love watching different types of, fractals, paintings and drawings..I guess a little of everything!!!!

nov 15th sunset by BlueIvyVioletmy morning..april 16th by BlueIvyVioletfeb 23rd sunset by BlueIvyViolet

:bulletblue: 5 What is Your inspiration?
Marilyn - My inspiration is all my dearest friends I have come to admire here on DA, my hubby and kids and mother nature!!

dedicated to...part 9 by BlueIvyVioletget well soon Amanda!! by BlueIvyVioletdedicated to...part 6 by BlueIvyViolet


DD from my suggestions :

Air Mail by Fiend-V

Have a good week !

The Wishing Jar 9:3

Sun Sep 21, 2014, 11:19 PM

Featuring Memberships and Point Wishes. :iconlainloveplz:

Hello everyone! This is DeviBrigard and I will be watching over Eve's big jar of Nutella while she is on a temporary break! :D


Take a look at the new wishes!



:star: HigherSeeking wishes for a 12-month premium membership. :star:

My Ophelia by HigherSeeking Escape by HigherSeeking Peaceful by HigherSeeking


:heart: lili-luu wishes for a 1 or 3-month premium membership. :heart:

Cheep Cheep: Super Mario Collab by lili-luu kyle kat by lili-luu Showtime Fanart! by lili-luu


:heart: PumpkinQueen13 wishes for a 3-month premium membership extension. :heart:

Dorkus Aurelius Origins - The Beginning IntroPrologue | Planet Sheen Gallery
Allow me to introduce myself, my name is Dorkus Aurelius, Royal Adviser to the Zeenuian Emperor; my current goal is to rid Zeenu of the meddlesome and impetuous alien, Sheen, who has stolen everything I’ve worked for.  I am deemed an idiot, a coward, and an evil monster by those who don’t know me or my story.
Before Sheen arrived, I was at the top of my game and was deemed a hero in the Emperor’s and the Zeenuians’ eyes.  I’ve never intended to harm anyone or anything unless they are deserving of their punishment; by my Emperor’s command, I carried out the punishment, even if they are sentenced to death.  I carried the title of “Warrior-Executi
  The Monster called Depression“It’s going to be all right…”
Most to all of you can relate these words and similar sayings.  However, what good are those words going to do if we can’t live by them?  Our actions will speak louder, when we finally realize the words’ meaning.
I’ve been hearing these words for too long, and yet I’ve done nothing that would make me feel that it will be all right in the end.  Especially when I have little to nothing to look back on.
I have lost my way years before, and I’m afraid to get back on the track because I’m worried I will make and do the same mistakes that caused me to lose my way.  Do this or that?  You attempt to be in my shoes and understand why I won’t or I’m not doing this or that. 
Two years ago I fought a monster called Depression, and for some reason it keeps calling to me, reawakening old bad memories and bad feelings that I had and still have.  Reawakening my demon
  I Won't Let Them Deify You (Planet Sheen Songfic)All my devotion betrayed
I am no longer afraid
I was too blinded to see
How much you’ve stolen from me.

After hearing that Sheen had been promoted to be the Emperor’s Top Royal Adviser, Dorkus couldn’t believe his ears. 
He had been serving the Emperor for much longer than this alien could possibly comprehend.  And the Emperor does this to him.
Exactly what did the boy know about advising?
Now, Dorkus’ mind was set, he would try to take back his place by any means necessary.
You wanna know why
I feel so horrified
I’ve let my innocence die

The thought of having to answer to a child gave Dorkus an unsettling feeling in his gut.
By what means could he do that would enable him to regain his place beside the Emperor?
He knew what he had to do…
He had to become something that he wasn’t:  a monster.
You wanna know why


:heart: VergilTheVampire wishes for a 12-month premium membership extension. :heart:

This deviant does not currently have any deviations, so here are some of their journals :la:
G4D:Random Member Feature Vol 8Welcome to Unknown Artists Project/A Random Feature
Every couple of weeks/next day we will feature a talented member of our Group who deserves more attention and exposure.
He/She will get feature with some of his/her few Works
They can be a member of dA for more than a year or Less.
Note: Every member of our Group will get Featured In our Journals with Their Deviations selected by our Admin team
Please take some time to read this journal and show your support to this wonderful Artist by checking out their page, faving thr Deviations & giving her a llama or adding her to your friends i.e watching the following Deviant.
Without A further Ado Artist Is :iconxcitizenxerasedx: :aww:
Have been deviant for 7 years & is a Traditional Artist, Hobbyist
With 80+deviations in her gallery

Featurig Some of her awesome works from her dA :gallery:
  G4D:Icon Contest:bulletgreen:Contest
Yep,Its time for a contest :la:
Draw a Group Icon/Avatar
:bulletred: Rules
You've to keep in mind the following things before you start working on our Group avatar Contest
:bulletblue: SHINING LIKE A STAR
:bulletblue: TRUE DEVIANTS
:bulletblue: A Group 4 deviantart
You've to mention any of the above three things in your Group Avatar
:bulletgreen:You've to fave this Journal in order to participate or your submission will not be accepted and if accepted by any reson will be removed immidiately
:bulletgreen:In your description box you've to mention that This Avatar or icon is made for Our Group i.e A-Group-4-deviantart
:bulletgreen:Submit your work in the Avatar Contest Folder
:bulletgreen:Entry accepted 1
[Bullet; Green]Our Group Admins cannot participate in this event or contest
[Bullet; Green]Your Entries will be judged by our Admin Team.
On the basis of "Creativity"
[Bullet; Pink]1st Place 50 [Points]
[Bullet; Pink]2nd & 3
  Project 10 O 5 Vol 10\5\3Hello. to all my watchers Hope that you all are having a Good day :hug:
My llama badge updated to Ninja llama thanks to all who've Given me the llama badge :huggle:

I've worked for hours on my profile page to make it look good
Hope you'll like it
Now,Coming to the Project 10 O 5
I hope that all my watchers will fave the featured deviant(s) artworks & Give him/her a llama or even a deviantwatch
Without a Futher Ado The Artist is :icon4miyuki5: 
Artist words "I'm by no means a photographer, I just love taking pictures for the sake of memories"with 70+  Deviations in her dA Gallery
Her works will be added to A-Group-4-deviantart  & Pass-It-Forward Gallery Folders :la:

Featuring some of her works that i really liked :heart:



:groups: Arichy wishes her donation pool bar would be filled. All points will go for the next projecteducate Community Week. :groups:

ashberry [2] by Arichy Green Life by Arichy Roses love by Arichy


:groups: rainylake wishes for points for her next contest. :groups:

On Love and Strength by rainylake Run by rainylake Kiwi by rainylake


:groups: Sserenita wishes for points for group contests. :groups:

WINGS OF FIRE - STARFLIGHT by Sserenita Wings of Fire - Glory and Kinkajou by Sserenita Wings of Fire - TSUNAMI by Sserenita


:star: DrippingWords wishes for points to commission art for her novel. :star:

The Beginning of the Endit started with Greed.
She wrapped Her tentacles around their minds,
digging deep into their psyche and corrupting them.
it started with Lust.
He slipped unnoticed into their corrupt brains,
reaching down into their hearts and twisting them.
it started with Pride.
He appeared inside their twisted cores,
pumping His poison through their bodies.
it ended with Wrath.
She took control of their very beings,
forcing the gun to their head and pulling the trigger.
  blizzardexpanses of snow
slipping, sliding, sledding down
the slopes of sheer ice.
clouds conquer the mountain of
clear crystals and cold cascades.
  breakingtime ticks on and you change
to survive, but survival of the fittest
always seemed a bit skewed
in the history books
of whoever won this war.
you're a chance to show them
they were wrong;
pull the trigger one last time
and let them know
who you're going to be.
if they smother you, shine
brighter than the fragments
they're made of -- don't
let them make you a ghost
in the machine that spins away
in forgotten dimensions
until it rusts. the craters of the moon
will always call for you,
changing the tides endlessly
until your voice crackles through
the radio and shouts back,
"no one can break me!"


:star: LadyWolfcat wishes for her donation widget to be filled. :star:

Big Siamese by LadyWolfcat Brittany owl by LadyWolfcat Djinn angry by LadyWolfcat


:star: Marianne-Pet wishes for her donation pool to be filled. :star:

Deja Vu by Marianne-Pet Flowers by Marianne-Pet Kiss The Cook by Marianne-Pet


:star: wingfril wishes for her donation widget to be filled. :star:

Night by wingfril Mystic forest by wingfril Serenity by wingfril


:star: WorldWar-Tori wishes for points for contests, projects, and other community events. :star:

::l o v e b i r d s:: by WorldWar-Tori Life is like photography... by WorldWar-Tori Baked Grapefruit by WorldWar-Tori


:heart: ATdragon wishes for GothicPegasister23's donation pool to get filled. :heart:

devatdragon:'s art
Self Portrait by ATdragon Muffins by ATdragon Practice by ATdragon

GothicPegasister23's art
Spray Paint Space by GothicPegasister23 Space In A Bottle by GothicPegasister23 Blurred Lines by GothicPegasister23


:heart: sharkkpaws wishes for 700 points. :heart:

for overdose by sharkkpaws memories by sharkkpaws ych -- sb 20 points by sharkkpaws


:heart: Toshki wishes for points towards premium membership for themself and their friends. :heart:

Smaug the Great by Toshki Zora the Zorua by Toshki Spot by Toshki


:heart: WingedAfricanWildDog wishes for any amount of points. :heart:

My new Fursona: Bazealo by WingedAfricanWildDog Hylexianth Species guide (CLOSED SPECIES) by WingedAfricanWildDog Mae my new OC/Fursona by WingedAfricanWildDog

That's all for this week folks! The Wishing Jar will return next week with new wishes.