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Pictured above Kanata (Canada) as Metis nation in the first panel and as Cree nation in the last panel.
Canada in the middle panel is wearing Inuit traditional clothes. 

Many thanks to :iconpoi-rozen: :iconlmbrake: :icongrayswolves: :iconsoul-reaper-allison: for the info about Canada. 


=> Oh Kanata! Our Home on Native Land


Video : www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0Hz0O…

by : TheHibbies
The Canadian National Anthem does not truly reflect this land, we created a new rendition of the song that gives acknowledgement to the fact that this country was founded on Indigenous traditional territories. In order to move forward, Canadians (whether Indigenous or Non-Indigenous) must acknowledge what has occurred in our history, and find positive ways of moving forward. As Non-Indigenous Canadians, we need to play our role as allies - and that first step begins with acknowledging what this country was originally founded upon. 

=> How Kanata became Canada 

The name Canada comes from the Iroquoian word kanata, meaning “village.” In August 1535, Jacques Cartier heard two Aboriginal youths refer to the village of Stadacona as Kanata. Cartier wrote the name down in his journal as Canada.

Source :www.noslangues-ourlanguages.gc…

=> The Cree


The tribal name originated with a group of Indigenous people near James Bay whose name was recorded by the French as Kiristinon and later contracted to Cri, spelled Cree in English. Most Cree use this name only when speaking or writing in English and have other, more localized names for themselves. Cree live in areas from Alberta to Québec, a geographic distribution larger than that of any other Native group in Canada.

The major divisions of environment and dialect are the Plains Cree (Alberta and Saskatchewan), Woods Cree (Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and Swampy Cree (Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Québec). Subarctic hunting cultures were thinly spread over the land and periodic hardships kept their population low over the centuries. In the 1600s the population is estimated to have been roughly 30 000 and in 1996 was more than 208 000.

Read more : www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca…


Hetalia belongs to Himaruya Hidekaz.
Nigeria OC design by :iconikechi1: 
Indonesia aph, Malaysia aph & Portugal aph based on Himaruya's sketch.
Philippines OC design by :iconlonewolfjc11:
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I am currently working with the wonderful faculty and artists at Concordia University, and will be completing my undergraduate degree in Studio Arts in 2015.  I was born and raised in the city of Kitchener, Ontario, and moved to the lively and artistic city of Montreal at the age of 19.  There, I learned the arts of independence, self-expression, falling in love, and finding home.  

My projects are often inspired from deeply personal events.  I treat my work as an opportunity to connect with others.  I hope that by looking inward, by expressing truthfully and openly, I can reach an audience who might just need a little bit of vulnerability in their lives.    My greatest artistic inspiration is the installation artist, Felix Gonzalez-Torres, whose life work was singularly dedicated to one person, but still managed to touch the hearts of countless anonymous human beings.  I am always considering how Gonzalez-Torres affected the world in such an open, honest, and simple way. 

In my work, I address the importance of spacial awareness.  I make connections between people and their land.  I strive to confront the meanings of ‘home’ and ‘nativity’.   I question how our land influences our bodies and our thoughts, and I do so through observation drawing, meditation, self-reflection, and with the help of powerful symbolism

Thank you for taking the time to view and learn about my work.  If you have any questions or feedback, please email me at cleyburne@hotmail.com

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Redone Designs and Background of Jamaica;

Country Information
Official Country Name: Commonwealth of Jamaica
Former Name(s): Santiago (while under Spain)
Capital: Kingston
Largest City: Kingston
Languages: English (Official) and Jamaican Patois/Jamaican Creole Jamaican Creole (National)
Government: Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
Current Leader: Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister Portia Simpson-Miller


Human Information
Human Name: Devon Powell
Nyotalia Name: Elisa Powell
Nickname[s]: Dev [Mainly by Cuba or other close friends]
Age Appearance: Jamaica appears to be 22 years of age.
Gender: Male
Birthday: August 6th


About Them
Personality: Jamaica is a proud Caribbean country who is often seen as the face of the Caribbean. He has a big brother personality to him and doesn't take too kindly to those who seek to harm those he cares about. Jamaica is also extremely devoted to his cooking. Jamaica also has a habit of being a bit of a flirt, mainly towards those not of the Caribbean (He'll hit on girls from Mexico to Malaysia, but is completely straight.).
Likes: Cooking (espicially Jerk chicken which is his one of his favorite dishes), Rugby, Football, and Jazz
Dislikes: Weed Jokes, Being associated with the Rastafari movement, and America making fun of his accent.
Extras:
- He likes to think that he is the oldest of Caribbean countries, although this is unconfirmed
- He is often grouped up with either Cuba and Bahamas or Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago.
- He has built up an tolerance to spicy foods.
- He can tell Canada and America apart with no problem (mainly because Canada won't make a weed joke less than five minutes into the conversation.)
- Jamaica is straight as homosexuality is not legal in Jamaica and because he is quite religious.


Physical Attributes
Height: 5'7''
Weight: 163 lbs.
Hair: Thick oily dark brown hair in a bunch of dreads with a loose tan and black hat on his head.
Eyes: Brown
Outfit (Casual): A short sleeve green shirt with a faded brown sash tied around the middle of it, brown cargo shorts, and brown sandals. Also wears a loose tan and black hat on his head.
Outfit (Military): Camouflage long sleeve shirt with matching pants and black boots. The uniform of the Jamaica Defence Force (JDF)
Tattoos: N/a
Piercings: N/a
Jewelry: N/a
Anything on your body that represents something in your country?:
- While not having the eyebrows like Australia or New Zealand, Jamaica's are still quite on the thicker side, similar to India's.


Family and Foreign Relationships
Family: Cuba (Could be considered a brother due to similarities in culture and language)
Friends: Cuba, Canada, Bahamas, Haiti, Barbados, Belize, and Brazil.
Pets: Doc, who is a Red-billed Streamertail bird, also known as the Doctor Bird [Jamaican official national bird]
Dislikes: America (For making weed jokes or badly imitating his accent.)
Potential Love Interest: Malaysia (Prime Ministers of both countries "have expressed satisfaction with the progress of bilateral relations between the two countries and have reaffirmed their commitment to strengthening these relations through the exchange of visits and cooperation in the economic, technological, shipping, health and educational sectors, among other areas" Both Jamaica and Malaysia are also the members of Commonwealth of Nations, Group of 77, Group of 15 and Non-Aligned Movement.)

or

Canada (Fem!Canada; There are 231,000 people of Jamaican descent living in Canada. Jamaican-Canadians celebrate their island heritage through festivals held in major cities across Canada, the most recognized of which is Caribana. Caribana is held in Toronto, Ontario every year and attracts over one million visitors to the region, many of whom fly all the way from Jamaica. Canada also has an agreement with the Jamaican government to allow the Canadian Forces a staging area to move troops and supplies for humanitarian assistance and possible anti-terrorism operations. Both are also full members of the Organization of American States and of the Commonwealth of Nations.)
Foreign Relationships: Barbados, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Haiti, Japan, Mexico, United Kingdom, and United States.


Brief History
Past Caretakers: Spain
History:

[Prehistory]
The Arawak and Taino indigenous people, originating in South America, settled on what is now Jamaica between 4000 and 1000 BC. When Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques (the chiefs of the villages). The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour.
The Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655.
The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is still attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/Arawaks.


[Spanish Rule 1509–1655]
The first of Spain's settlements was founded in 1509 near St Ann's Bay and named Seville. In 1534 the settlers moved to a new, healthier site, which they named Villa de la Vega, which England renamed Spanish Town when they conquered the island in 1655. This settlement served as the capital of both Spanish and English Jamaica from its foundation in 1534 until 1872, after which the capital was moved to Kingston.
In the 1640s many people were attracted to Jamaica, which had a reputation for stunning beauty, not only in reference to the island but also to the natives. Pirates were well known to desert their own raiding parties and stay on the island.
Spanish Jamaica, known as Santiago was subject to many privateer attacks, before the final conquest of the island by England in 1655. The English were subject to several unsuccessful Spanish counter-attacks after they occupied the island including the largest battle to be fought on Jamaican soil at the Battle of Rio Nuevo.


[British Rule 1655–1962]
Spanish resistance continued for some years after the English conquest, in some cases with the help of the Jamaican Maroons, but Spain never succeeded in retaking the island. Under early English rule, Jamaica became a haven of privateers, buccaneers, and occasionally outright pirates: Christopher Myngs, Edward Mansvelt, and most famously, Henry Morgan.
The English established their main coastal town at Port Royal. By 1659, two hundred houses, shops, and warehouses surrounded the fort. The town was destroyed by an earthquake in 1692, after which Kingston became the main coastal settlement.

The revenues from cultivation of the lucrative commodity crops of sugar cane and coffee by African slave labour made Jamaica one of the most valuable possessions in the world for more than 150 years. The colony's slaves, who outnumbered their white masters by a ratio of 20:1 in 1800, mounted over a dozen major slave conspiracies, the majority of which were organized by Coromantins, and uprisings during the 18th century, including Tacky's revolt in 1760. Escaped slaves known as Jamaican Maroons established independent communities in the mountainous interior, which the British were unable to suppress, despite major attempts in the 1730s and 1790s. One Maroon community was expelled from the island after the Second Maroon War in the 1790s.
Those Maroons, first shipped from Jamaica to Nova Scotia, eventually became part of the core of the Creole community of Sierra Leone. The majority of its members were African Americans, Black Loyalists and their descendants who had been freed and relocated to Nova Scotia after the American Revolutionary War. Life was difficult there, and nearly 2,000 chose to resettle in Sierra Leone, a British colony in West Africa.

The British also used Jamaica's free people of color, 10,000 strong by 1800, to keep the enslaved population in check. During the Christmas holiday of 1831, a large-scale slave revolt known as the Baptist War broke out. It was originally organized as a peaceful strike by Samuel Sharpe. The rebellion was soon suppressed by the militia of the Jamaican plantocracy and the British garrison ten days later in early 1832.
Because of the loss of property and life in the 1831 rebellion, the British Parliament held two inquiries. Their reports on conditions contributed greatly to the abolition movement and passage of the 1833 law to abolish slavery as of August 1st, 1834, throughout the British Empire. The Jamaican slaves were bound legally to their former owners' service, albeit with a guarantee of rights, until 1838 under what was called the Apprenticeship System. The freed population faced significant hardships.
Tensions resulted in the October of 1865 Morant Bay rebellion led by and Paul Bogle. It was brutally repressed by the government and private militieas. George William Gordon, a friend of Paul Bogle, was hanged because he was thought to have possibly contributed to the riot, although he was not a part of its organization or its execution. As the sugar crop declined in importance in the late 19th century, colony Jamaica diversified into cultivation of bananas.
In 1866, Jamaica's legislature renounced his powers, and Jamaica became a crown colony. In 1872 the capital was moved to Kingston, as the port city had far outstripped the inland Spanish Town mainly in size and sophistication. Some measure of self-government was restored in the 1880s, when islanders gained the right to elect nine members of a legislative council.
The establishment of Crown Colony rule resulted, over the next few decades, in the growth of a middle class of low-level public officials and police officers, drawn from the mass of the population whose social and political advancement was blocked by racial discrimination, limited education and opportunities for advancement, and other restrictions maintained by the colonial authorities.

The Great Depression had a serious effect on the emergent middle class and the working class of the 1930s.
In the spring of 1938, sugar and dock workers around the island rose in revolt over wages and conditions. Although the revolt was suppressed, it led to significant changes, including the emergence of an organized labour movement and a competitive party system.


[Independent Jamaica]
Jamaica gained a degree of local political control in the mid-1940s. The People's National Party (PNP) was founded in 1938. Its main rival, the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) was established five years later.
The first elections under universal adult suffrage were held in 1944. Jamaica joined nine other UK territories in the Federation of the West Indies in 1958 but reconsidered.
After a 1961 referendum in which the voters chose independence, he quickly withdrew from the federation.
Jamaica gained his independence on August 6th, 1962, remaining a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The first prime minister was Alexander Bustamante of the Jamaica Labour Party.
Power regularly shifted between the People's National Party and the Jamaican Labour Party. Michael Manley was the first PNP prime minister in 1972. He introduced socialist policies and relations with Cuba. During his second-term campaign, unrest in Jamaica erupted in repeated political violence.
When the PNP lost power in 1980, Edward Seaga immediately began to reverse the policies of his predecessor. He began to privatize industry and sought closer ties with the USA. When the PNP and Manley returned to power in 1989, they carried out more moderate policies; they were returned in the elections of 1993 and 1998. After Manley resigned for health-related reasons in 1992, he was succeeded as leader of the PNP by Percival Patterson.
Historically, Jamaican emigration has been heavy. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, many Jamaicans migrated to Central America, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic to work in the banana and canefields. Others went to the United States, particularly New York City, where they became important in the rise of the Harlem Renaissance and various political movements.
In the 1950s the primary destination was to the United Kingdom; but after the UK restricted immigration in 1962, the major flow has been mainly to the United States and Canada. Because of economic problems since the 1990s, many Jamaicans have emigrated to New York and Miami for work.
About 20,000 Jamaicans immigrate to the United States each year; another 200,000 visit annually. New York, Hartford, Connecticut, Miami, and Fort Lauderdale are among the U.S. cities with the largest Jamaican populations. In New York, more than half the Jamaican expatriate population resides in Brooklyn. Remittances from the expatriate communities in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada make increasingly significant contributions to Jamaica's economy.


[Slavery in Jamaica]
Slaves who married each other without slavemasters' recognition might separate "without much ceremony" or by cutting a "cotta, a circular pad of dried, plaited plantain leaves", upon which slaves customarily rested the loads which they carried upon their heads. Slaves in divorce had relative equality with each other, which was derived from West African traditions, under which either spouse could initiate a divorce, when "the vast majority of European women" lacked equality in divorce.

Base by Heartfelt-Dreamer
Hetalia © Hidekaz Himaruya
Jamaica OC © MapleBeer-Shipper
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He was sired by leading stud Star Shoot out of the Hanover mare Lady Sterling. His grandsire was the 1893 English Triple Crown champion,Isinglass.[1]

Sir Barton was bred in Kentucky by John E. Madden and Vivian A. Gooch at Hamburg Place Farm near Lexington.
Early career

Madden raced the colt in his own ownership during his two-year-old season. He was entered in six races, winning none. Madden sold the horse in 1918 for $10,000 to Canadian businessman J. K. L. Ross.[2]

Ross placed Sir Barton in the hands of trainer H. Guy Bedwell and jockey Johnny Loftus.

Triple Crown

At three, Sir Barton made his season debut as a maiden in the Kentucky Derby. He was supposed to be the rabbit (pacemaker) for his highly regarded stablemate, a horse named Billy Kelly. However, Sir Barton led the field of 12 horses from start to finish, winning the race by five lengths.[3] Just four days later, the horse was in Baltimore and won the Preakness Stakes, beating Eternal by four lengths. Again he led all the way.[4] He then won the Withers Stakes in New York and shortly thereafter completed the first Triple Crown in U.S. history by easily winning theBelmont Stakes, setting an American record for the mile and three-eighths race, the distance for the Belmont at the time. Sir Barton's four wins were accomplished in a space of just 32 days. He has been retrospectively honored as the 1919 Horse of the Year.

1920: four-year-old season

As a four-year-old, Sir Barton won five of the 12 races he entered during the 1920 season. In one of these races, the Saratoga Handicap, he beatExterminator. While carrying 133 pounds, Sir Barton set a world record for 1 3/16 miles on dirt in winning the August 28, 1920 edition of theMerchants and Citizens Handicap.[5] However, it was his match race on October 12 that year against Man o' War at Kenilworth Park in Windsor, OntarioCanada that is most remembered. Sir Barton, who suffered from hoof problems throughout his career, was unsuited by Kenilworth's hard surface, and was beaten by seven lengths.[6]

Retirement and stud

He retired to stud that year, virtually forgotten by the public. In 1922 Ross sold Sir Barton to B. B. Jones who stood him at his Audley Farm inBerryville, Virginia, where he remained until 1933.[7] In December 2008, a statue was unveiled of Sir Barton in front of Audley Farm's stallion barn. The statue, by American sculptor Jan Woods, was a gift from Erich von Baumbach, Jr., whose family has had an association with the farm for thirty years.[8]

As a sire, Sir Barton enjoyed only moderate success and spent the better part of the rest of his life as a working horse with the U.S. Army Remount Service in Fort Robinson, Nebraska until being sold to rancher J.R. Hylton in Douglas, Wyoming.[9]

Sir Barton died of colic on October 30, 1937 and was buried on a ranch in the foothills of the Laramie Mountains. Later though, his remains were moved to Washington Park in Douglas, Wyomingwhere a memorial was erected to honor America's first Triple Crown winner.[10]

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Gold Mining Deals Seen Rebounding on Price Discount: Comm

 

Investment bankers see gold-mining deals rebounding this year from a near-decade low as producers target assets at fire-sale prices after the metal plunged.

 

Gold-mining companies are close to their cheapest relative to book value in at least two decades, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. Meanwhile producers will be enticed to replace some of the output lost when they sold or curtailed less-profitable mines, said Barclays Plc’s Paul Knight.

 

“Majors who have done portfolio optimization will look at some of the juniors and say, ‘Here’s a chance for us to acquire a potentially better asset than we’ve sold and to mitigate the loss of production,’” Knight, a Barclays vice chairman and co-head of global metals and mining, said Jan. 6 by telephone.

 

There were $10.1 billion of deals involving gold producers last year, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. That’s 4.4 percent less than in 2012 and the smallest since 2004.

 

While gold deals declined, there were signs of a resurgence of activity in December as the value of transactions reached the highest monthly level since February. Goldcorp Inc. (G) and Newmont Mining Corp. (NEM), the second- and third-largest producers by market value, said in September they were evaluating the potential for deals to add low-cost operations.

 

Free Cash

 

Single-project developers such as Pretium Resources Inc. (PVG) and Torex Gold Resources Inc. (TXG) may be attractive to larger companies, according to Adam Graf, a New York-based analyst at Cowen & Co.

 

Pretium’s project in British Columbia has high grades, which will probably make it attractive to larger miners, Joe Ovsenek, the company’s chief development officer, said by phone. The Vancouver-based company is focused on developing the mine, he said. A spokeswoman for Toronto-based Torex didn’t respond to e-mails or phone calls seeking comment.

 

The larger miners may be better positioned to consider acquisitions than in 2013 after cutting costs. The 10 biggest producers by sales, led by Barrick Gold Corp. (ABX), may generate combined free cash flow of $4.17 billion this year, compared with a negative $1.74 billion in 2013, according to analysts’ estimates compiled by Bloomberg. That would be the highest for the group in at least eight years, the data show.

 

At the same time, exploration and development companies, which generally rely on regular financings if their projects aren’t yet generating revenue, may have more incentive to sell themselves.

 

‘For Sale’

 

The Standard & Poor’s/TSX Global Gold Sector Index lost almost half its value last year as the metal fell the most in more than three decades. As investors pulled out of the industry, explorers and mine developers struggled to sell shares. The group’s reported cash balance has dropped about 30 percent since 2012, while share sales by gold companies fell to the lowest since 2005, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.

 

“Companies whose access to capital has been cut off because of the current market sentiment will be compelled to consider mergers to conserve cash and survive until conditions improve,” Michael Faralla, head of global mining investment banking at Toronto-Dominion Bank, said in an e-mailed response to questions. “Some of these companies may also elect to put themselves up for sale.”

 

Many miners may not find buyers. Some companies with good deposits and management will emerge as “winners” while others will be challenged as the industry gets smaller, said Joe Wickwire, who manages more than $1.5 billion at Fidelity Investments, including the Select Gold Portfolio.

 

 

 

‘Darwinism Is Alive’

 

“Darwinism is alive and well in the gold industry right now,” Wickwire said by phone last month. While ultimately there will be fewer companies producing less gold, “the profitability of the industry is going to go up.”

 

To be sure, the appetite for gold M&A will be tempered by high levels of debt and a newfound emphasis by the largest producers on returns rather than growth, said Neil Gregson, a London-based fund manager at JPMorgan Chase & Co.

 

“Lots of things can be done, but there are not that many consolidators around, and of course everyone thinks their share price is too low to use,” Gregson said by phone. “There’s not that many ready buyers.”

 

Deals with low-to-no premiums such as mergers of equals “could make a lot of sense,” because they give companies a way to transform their businesses, reduce costs and strengthen balance sheets, said Matthew Hind, the Toronto-based head of Canadian metals and mining investment banking for Credit Suisse Group AG.

 

Option to Diversify

 

The industry’s largest companies also may take steps to become more diversified into other commodities, according to Hind and Barclays’ Knight.

 

Recent signs of a possible upturn in dealmaking include Asanko Gold Inc.’s Dec. 17 agreement to buy PMI Gold Corp. (PMV) Another came the day before when Primero Mining Corp. (P) said it agreed to buy Halifax, Nova Scotia-based Brigus Gold Corp. (BRD) for about C$287 million ($267 million) including debt.

 

The Primero acquisition will give the Vancouver-based company a gold mine and a development project in Ontario, while Brigus will get access to funding to repay debt and finance its operations, the companies said.

 

Newmont’s Search

 

“We don’t expect the capital markets to ride to the rescue of everyone,” Peter Myers, head of investment & corporate banking, Canada and International, at Bank of Montreal, said in an interview in Toronto. “Ultimately the sector has to take care of itself.”

 

Newmont Chief Executive Officer Gary Goldberg said on Sept. 24 the largest U.S. gold producer was searching for acquisitions to add low-cost gold or copper output after asset valuations fell. Goldcorp continues to evaluate potential deals, CEO Chuck Jeannes said the same month.

 

Omar Jabara, a Newmont spokesman, declined to comment. Jeff Wilhoit, a spokesman for Goldcorp, said Jeannes wasn’t available to comment.

 

“We’ll see activity in the gold sector increase regardless of what happens with the gold price,” Mike Boyd, the head of global M&A at Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, said by phone. “People will want to pursue consolidation and try to drive down their cost structures.”

 

RELATED SITES:

blackhawk-mining.com/2013/11/2…

www.facebook.com/BlackHawkMine…

www.linkedin.com/groups/Blackh…

 

 

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Lots of stuff artistically happened this year:

:bulletpurple: I started the fourth draft of Emperor's Blood; it is almost done!
:bulletpurple: I started Sketch of the Day, which has been absolutely fantastic - finally an art tradition that I can keep up with! (Well, 99% of the time anyway!)
:bulletpurple: I drew a lot more human-type things. Yay, bipeds! :D
:bulletpurple: I started preproduction for my eventual graphic novel Dragon Knight which is ongoing and produced the practice sketch comic Cape Cavalier. Started producing the several page short Cold Chase.
:bulletpurple: I produced my first full length completed illustrated sequential work (Blue Fuzzy Travels the World - which I have yet to find the time to compile into a flash document to post here.) 
:bulletpurple: I painted my first Windstone PYO whose colouration I called Copper Tiger. He went to live in Ontario.
:bulletpurple: I produced a lot of acrylic paintings and was introduced to ACEO cards; started painting acrylics in the style of watercolour as well. Put my first painting up for sale. (Th'snow leopard y'see up above here.)
:bulletpurple: Painted my first landscape painting, Lake O'Hara.
:bulletpurple: I finally painted my late BFF cat Sunny. :heart:

Onwards to 2014! (More humans!)

The sketches in the background is concept art of Sgt. Anzi Blackroot, the falcolf protagonist of Dragon Knight.

2012 Summary of Art by Falcolf

Art (c) Rosanna P. Brost
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A good friend of mine whose name is William Tell. Yes his name is William Tell. Did a Dr. Fate cosplay golden age style for Fanexpo 2011. Didn't get around to doing cosplay pictures of it until this year. Went out to the Screaming Heads in Burks Falls Ontario for photos. Turned out well.

Dr. Fate - William Tell
Photographer - Me
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La fermière (fountain sculpture)

4375, rue Ontario est, Montréal, Québec, H1V 3V3


Patronym ?

In Nouvelle-France, it was customary to dress up people nicknames, see nom de guerre. For some, they was a way ordinary people had to give a little air of nobility, but rather should be seen as a way to differentiate two individuals. It was not uncommon to see the first son/daughter have the same name as his father/mother. More recruiting settlers was generally in specific regions and was fluent that some individuals had the same first and last names.

These nicknames were placed after the name with a particle "dit" in between. It "dit" was a way to say "alleged" or "hearing-said" they denoted, non-formal and sometimes pictorial, some qualifications possessed by them. In addition, to demonstrate that "dit" is not a proper name, it is sometimes féménisé in "dite" ; Marie Laine dite Laliberté. It was sometimes difficult between settlers and soldiers, to investigate allegations of certain about their place of origin. For example, the name "Nicholas Senet" became "Nicholas Senet dit La Liberté". Subsequently, these "first-names + names + nicknames" could trasnformer depending on the choice of the individual or individuals drafting legal acts (baptism, marriage, notary, etc ...). You could see "Nicholas Senet" be named "Nicholas Senet", "Nicholas Senet dit La Liberté", "Nicholas La Liberté", "Nicholas Senet La Liberté", "Nicholas Laliberté" "Nicholas Senet Laliberté" or "Nicholas Laliberté". And I'm not talking about the sound that made ??these interpretations editors acts (Senet, Senais, Senna, Sennay, Senais, etc ...).

Cetains qualify incorrectly these nicknames "patronym". If we look a little word "patronym", was found to have roots to the words; "pater" = father and "nomen" = name. So "patronym" means "father's name" commonly call'd "familly name". But as it was established by use since the seventeenth century, it is also, though improperly, use it for this type of nicknames ...

According PRDH (Programme for Research in Demography History), nicknamed "La Liberté" (Laliberté) is one that was worn by many ancestors from different origins came to Nouvelle-France in the seventeenth century :

  • Mathurin Colin dit La Liberté;
  • François Huard dit La Liberté;
  • Nicholas-Jean Vinet dit La Liberté;
  • Nicholas Senet dit La Liberté;
  • Gaspard Roiroux dit La Liberté;
  • Pierre Letendre dit La Liberté;
  • Nicholas Lehoux dit La Liberté;
  • Jean Hervé dit La Liberté;
  • Pierre Galet dit La Liberté;
  • Bernard Laisné dit La Liberté;
  • etc...
According to my research, it seems clear that most of the "Laliberté" in america are the descendant of "Bernard Laisné". Among the most iullustres of them include the :
  • Jean-Baptiste Laliberté - opened in 1867 at the corner of Saint-Joseph and Lachapelle, in Quebec, a fur workshop, nowadays, is recognized worldwide;
  • Alfred Laliberté - sculptor and statuary, it is recognized as one of the greatest artists of the early twentieth century in Quebec who made ??nearly 1,000 works that are found in museums and public places, mainly in Montreal;
  • Guy Laliberté - founder of "Cirque du Soleil" in 1984;
  • etc...

Bernard Laisné dit La Liberté (1656-1715)

Other ways of writing the patronym : Laisnay, Lesnay, Lesné, Lainé, L'Ainé, Laine, Lenes, Lainesse, L'Ainesse, Laine(sse)...

Laisné Bernard was born between 1655 and 1656, he was the son of "Luce Lesnard" (Léonard, Leguevelz) and Guillaume (Gilles) Laisné, and was baptized April 27, 1656 at Chastelauden in Bretagne. He would have arrived in Nouvelle-France in Quebec City during the summer 1677. We have no evidence, nor rolle boarding containing his name to the year 1677 but the vessels were not doing this times crossing in winter, it is mentioned in the marriage between Jean Riou and Catherine Leblond, of the parish of Sainte-Famille de Sales Ile d'Orleans, dated January 10, 1678.

It is unclear if the commitment is made before departure or signed in Quebec, but in 1678 we find him as a servant in Marin Nourice (Norrice, Norice, Nourisse). He succumbs to the charm of Jeanne, a 12 years young daughter of Nourice. with whom he is sponsoring "Genevieve Martin", baptized on December 21, 1678 in Sainte-Famille de Sales Ile d'Orleans. On 14 March 1679, it passes in front of the Notary Becquet at Quebec, a marriage contract with Jeanne Nourice, daughter of Marin Nourice (1635-1700) and Antoinette Lamoureux (1651-1706). This marriage never materialized ...

August 30, 1679, Bernard signed a commitment to work for Christopher Martin from that date, and the fact waives its previous commitments, including marriage with Jeanne Nourice. The father of the sacked "future" make Bernard appear before "juge-bailli" of the île d'Orléans, claiming him 140 pounds, six months' pension at 15 pounds per month and 50 pounds as compensation for its "failure" to marriage contract with Jeanne. In his defense, Bernard Laisné submitted a brief to the "juge-bailli" in which he seeks payment of his allowance as domestic at 10 pounds per month and handed over his belongings. The decision was rendered in favor of Bernard to whom Marin Nourice required to give a sum of 60 pounds and 10 sols to his wages which were to deduct a little over 20 pounds for his debts and compensation for Jeanne. The decision was appealed to the provost court of Quebec, by Marin Nourice, on August 20, 1680, but the judgment was upheld, but the dédommagenet was increased to 30 pounds.

The different between the two men, Bernard Laisné and Marin Nourice, perhaps due to meet of Bernard with another girl, Marie-Anne Dionne (Dion), a few weeks after his commitment from Jeanne. According PRDH Bernard married Marie-Anne, who was born 27 July 1665 in Sainte-Famille de Sales Ile d'Orleans, daughter of Antoine Dionne (1641-1721) and Catherine Yvory (1644 -XXXX), on April 11, 1681 in Quebec City. Following an agreement between the in-laws and Bernard, the couple live in the next four years on the Dionne's family farm. Following this commitment, it should be transferred to Bernard the ownership of the premises and menagerie of the farm, but by common consent, it was agreed that Antoine Dionne pays 120 pounds and gives food to be able to establish. It is with this new deal he bought, from Elie-Joseph Gauthier, on January 30, 1685, at a cost of 100 pounds, a land of three acres of frontage on the south side of the île d'Orléans. In April of the same year, he was conceded by the "seigneur" Louis Rouer de Villeray, a land of three acres in front, next to his.

The marriage of Marie-Anne and Bernard have at least 14 children :

  • Anonyme (1681-1681);
  • Jacques (1682-1702);
  • Simon (1687-1689);
  • Pierre (1689-1748), married with Marguerite-Catherine Plante (1720);
  • Jean (1691-XXXX);
  • Marie-Anne (1694-1775), married with Maurice Larrivée (1709), married with Barthélémi (Barthelemy) Rosa;
  • Marie-Madeleine (1694-1749), married with François Larrivée (1704);
  • Charles (1696-XXXX), married with Marie-Jeanne Mingo (Mingou) (1720);
  • Geneviève (1698-1762), married with Jacques-Marie Lamothe (1720);
  • Marie-Isabelle (1701-1758), married with Nicholas Dassylva dit Portugais (1722);
  • Marie-Ursule (1704-1781), married with Jean-Baptiste Brosseau (1728), married with Charles Rancourt (1745), married with Gilles-Joseph Decroy (1777);
  • Marie-Agathe (1706-1782), married with Pierre Olivier Tareau (1729), married with Louis Godbout (1760);
  • François (1707-1707);
  • Anne (1711-XXXX).

Bernard and Marie-Anne lived all the rest of their lives, on their land, at Saint-Jean, Île d'Orléans. Bernard died there on October 23, 1715 and was buried the next day in the parish cemetery. Marie-Anne survived him until 11 October 1728.

Pierre Laisné dit Laliberté (1689-1748)

Pierre was born on August 16, 1689, in Saint-Jean, Île d'Orléans, son of Bernard Laisné dit La Liberté (1656-1715) and Marie-Anne Dionne (1665-1728). Although he was born in the limit of the parish of Saint-Jean, it is in Saint-François île d'Orléans he was baptized. This is probably because the church of Saint-François was closer to the residence of the Laisné family, which was located east of the Saint-Jean, close to the mouth of the river Dauphine that delimits the two parishes, they took him there for baptism. He lived in the family home until his marriage. On January 30, 1720, he married Marguerite-Catherine Plante, daughter of Pierre Plante (1666-1737) and Marguerite Patenaude (Patenotre) (1669-1738), born 27 March 1699 in Saint-Jean, Île d'Orléans.

The couple had at least 11 children (some said they had 12, but I found the trace of only 11) :

  • Pierre (1721-1723);
  • Pierre (1723-1803), married with Angélique Allaire dit Dallaire;
  • Joseph-Marie (1725-1760), married with Angélique Asselin;
  • Marguerite (1726-1750);
  • Marie-Joseph (1728-1748);
  • Jean-Marie (1729-1799), married with Basilisse Audet dit Lapointe (1764), married with Françoise Boulanger dit Lefebvre (1775);
  • Charles (1731-XXXX);
  • Thecle (1733-1801), married with Pierre Moreau (1760), married with Jacques Asselin (1767);
  • Genevieve (1734-1812), married with Jean-Baptiste Asselin (1753);
  • Ambroise (1736-1738);
  • Madeleine (1738-1781), married with Pierre Bilodeau (1760).
The family is based in Saint-Jean, Île d'Orléans, on family land, the February 26, 1748 marks the end of the earthly adventure of Pierre. Marguerite-Catherine, meanwhile, lived until 25 May 1782.

Pierre Laisné dit Laliberté (1723-1803)


Pierre was born November 2, 1723, in Saint-Jean, Île d'Orléans, son of Pierre Laisné dit Laliberté (1689-1748) and arguerite-Catherine Plante (1699-1782). On November 9, 1750 he married Angélique Allaire dit Dallaire, orphan of Marie-Angélique Cloutier (1692-1749) and Jacques Allaire (1700-1750), born on February 15, 1725 in Château-Richer, the Côte de Beaupré in Quebec . The couple moved to Saint-Charles, at 20 km southeast of Lévis, in the "seigneurie" of La Durantaye (now Bellechasse) to raise a family of ten children:

  • Pierre (1752-1791), married with Pélagie Labrecque Labrie (1775);
  • Louis-Barthelemi (1753-1811), married with Madeleine Marcoux (1778);
  • Marie-Angelique (1755-1755);
  • Angelique (1756-1822), married with Charles Labrecque (1777);
  • Etienne (1758-1759);
  • Marie-Anne (1760-1776);
  • Madeleine (1762-1826), married with Charles Quemeneur (1794);
  • Joachim (1764-1831), married with Félecité Labonte (1788), married with Therese Morin (1793);
  • Joseph (1765-1834), married with Marie-Reine Blondeau (1795);
  • Jean (1767-1842), married with Marthe Roy (1791).
In 1788 the family moved to Saint-Henri, near the Etchemin River in the seigneurie of Lauzon. On June 05, 1798, Angélique died there at the age of 73 years. Pierre will follow a few years later, on February 5, 1803.

Louis-Barthelemi Laisné dit Laliberté (1753-1811)

Louis-Barthelemi (Louis-Barthelemy) was born on August 26, 1753, in Saint-Charles, in the "seigneurie" of La Durantaye, he is the son of Pierre Laisné dit Laliberté (1723-1803) and Angélique Allaire dit Dallaire (1725-1798). On July 7, 1778, he married Madeleine Marcoux, daughter of Marie-Thecle (Thecile) Mercier (1736-1807) and Louis-Alexandre Marcoux (1730-1814), born in Saint-Michel, in the "seigneurie" of La Durantaye, on January 7 1759. The couple settled in Saint-Michel and in 1782 moved to Saint-Henri, in the "seigneurie" of Lauzon, where he has at least 15 children:

  • Madeleine (1779-1852), married with Jacques Boulanger (1810);
  • Louis (1780-XXXX);
  • Pierre (1781-1782);
  • Angélique (1782-1844), married with Charles Roy (1802);
  • Félicité (1784-XXXX);
  • Joseph (1785-XXXX), married with Marguerite Bernier (1810);
  • Madeleine (1786-1787);
  • Etienne-Amable (1787-1787);
  • Marie-Therese (1788-1838), married with Louis Gosselin (1812);
  • Marie-Victoire (1790-1791);
  • Marguerite (1792-1864), married with Laurent Dumas (1814);
  • Charles (1795-XXXX), married with Marie-Élizabeth Bolduc (1814);
  • Simon-Prudent (1798-1874), married with Marguerite Duquet (1819);
  • Angele (1801-1801);
  • Rose (1802-XXXX).
Louis-Barthelemi died at the age of 58, on February 25, 1811, in Saint-Henri, in the "seigneurie" of Lauzon. Madeleine, meanwhile, it is only on December 27, 1824 she died over the age of 65.

Charles Laliberté (1795-XXX)

Charles Laliberté was born on September 9, 1795, in Saint-Charles, in the "seigneurie" of La Durantaye The son of Louis-Barthelemi Laisné dit Laliberté (1753-1811) and Madeleine Marcoux (1759-1824). On October 11, 1814 in Saint-Vallier, in the "seigneurie" of La Durantaye, he married Marie-Élizabeth Bolduc, daughter of Élisabeth Laurendeau (1771-1828) and Pierre Bolduc (1753-XXXX), born on 27 March 1796 in Saint-Michel , also in the "seigneurie" of La Durantaye. Marie-Élizabeth was baptized the same day in the parish church. His godfather was his uncle, Michel Bolduc, and his godmother, his aunt Marie-Claire Laurendeau. The couple established residence in Saint-Henri, in the "seigneurie" of Lauzon, and between 1827 and 1830, the family moved to Saint-Gervais, in the "seigneurie" of Beaumont. The couple had at least 11 children:

  • Narcisse (1818-XXXX);
  • Marie-Marcelline (1821-XXXX);
  • Eleonore (1825-1826);
  • Zoe (1826-XXXX);
  • Louis (1827-XXXX), married with Marie-Louise Fortier (1847);
  • Desanges (1828-1909), married with Antoine Boilard (1848), mariée avec Charles Fleury (1854);
  • Prudent (1830-XXXX), married with Basilice (Basilisse) Lepage (1850);
  • Edouard (1830-1831);
  • Damase (1831-XXXX);
  • Céline (1833-XXXX);
  • Marie (1834-XXXX).
I've also seen on a few occasions the "Honorine Laliberté," which was born around 1830 (maybe 1832 ?) And who married, on April 13, 1858 in Saint-Isidore, a certain Firmin Blais. However, partial information on his descendants and ascendants have not allowed me to be certain of this relationship. After the birth of Marie, in 1834, we lose track of this couple. I could find no death certificate or transaction relating to Charles Laliberté and his wife Marie-Élizabeth Bolduc.

De Prudent Laliberté (1830-XXX) et Joseph Laliberté (1854-après 1914)

Prudent Laliberté was born in 1830 in Saint-Gervais, in the "seigneurie" of Beaumont, son of Charles Laliberté (1795-XXX) and Marie-Élizabeth Bolduc (1796-XXXX). On April 30, 1850 Prudent married Basilice (Basilisse) Lepage, daughter Thérèse Drouin and François Lepage, also born in 1830. They had at least one son whose name was Joseph, and was born in December 1854 (1911 census).

On February 29, 1876, Joseph married Marie Richard in Warwick, in the county of Arthabaska. Marie (18 October 1848) has nearly 28 years while he was aged only 21 years. The couple had at least six children:

  • Alfred (1878-1953), married with Jeanne Lavallée (1940);
  • Napoléon (1878-XXXX);
  • Rose-Anna (Rozana) (1880-XXXX);
  • Joseph-Achille (1882-before 1891);
  • Laura (1884-1967), married with Joseph Gosselin (1904);
  • David (1891-XXXX);
Marie died somewhere between 1901 and 1905. She was present for the census that took place from 6 to 9 April 1901, but she was dead on May 6, 1905 when Joseph married Domithilde Barabé (1854-XXX) in Sainte-Cécile de Whitton. Domithilde died between 1911 (this census this year) and 1914 when Joseph takes his third wife on September 1, 1914 in Sainte-Cécile de Whitton, it binds her for Emma-Zoé Berthiaume who was born around 1860.

Alfred Laliberté (1877-1953)

Alfred was born in Sainte-Élisabeth-de-Warwick, in Quebec, on May 19, 1878. He is the eldest son of Marie Richard and the farmer Joseph Laliberté. Very young he is interested in forms. Some say, when he accompanied his mother to the fields, he had the habit of carved pieces of wood. At the age of 18, on the advice of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, he studied at the "Conseil des Arts et Manufactures" of Montreal, where he was taught modeling and drawing. This gifted student quickly became noticed by influential people. In 1897, then aged 20, he won the first prize of the "Exposition Provinciale de Québec" (Quebec Provincial Exhibition) presenting a statue, life size, of Sir Wilfrid Laurier who was then Prime Minister of Canada.

In 1902, with the support of his wealthy patrons, he went to Paris to study at the "École des Beaux-Arts". There he befriends Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté, he enjoys painting, but seeing the works of Rodin that he decided to focus his work in sculpture. He participated in several exhibitions in Paris, including the "Salon du Printemps".

Upon his return to Quebec in 1905, he was hired as a teacher at the "Conseil des Arts et Manufactures" where he prepares his first solo exhibition at the "Art Association of Montreal". In 1922 he became a professor at the prestigious "École des Beaux-Arts" in Montreal. During his career, he made more than 1000 sculptures in marble, plaster and wooden statues, besides its some 500 paintings (which have a lower interest). Among the sculpture, there is a series of 215 bronze statues representing "little people" in everyday scenes. He wants to emphasize the contribution that these "pioneers" and "people" brought culture and the evolution of his country.

Painter and sculptor, but also a writer. During his life, Alfred wrote "Mes mémoires", "Réflexions sur l'art et l'artiste" and "Les artistes de mon temps". In 1978, these three manuscripts are published under the title "My memories".

June 22, 1940, he married Jeanne Lavallée, daughter of François-Uldéric Lavallée and Marie-Zélie Côté. The couple settled at 3531, rue Sainte-Famille, in Montreal where Alfred renders the soul in 1953.

Le 22 juin 1940, il épouse Jeanne Lavallée, fille de François-Uldéric Lavallée et de Marie-Zélie Côté. Le couple s'installe au 3531, rue Ste-Famille, à Montréal où Alfred rend l'âme en 1953.

Marché Maisonneuve

See other text - fav.me/d53ynqy

At the end of the 19th century, the city of "Maisonneuve" was among the most dynamic cities of America. She had large tracts of former farmland that is destined to urbanization. They wanted to make a city more modern and construction projects abounded. Most of these projects have been entrusted to the brothers Marius (1883-1945) and Oscar Dufresne (1875-1936). We will return to the Dufresne family in our future text on the "Château Dufresne".

The first version of the project for a public market in Maisonneuve was presented to City Council in 1899. He was rejected because such infrastrucures is expensive and the City does not have the necessary funds for its implementation. About fifteen years later, the Dufresne family offers the municipality land, bordering the railway, for the erection of the "Marché Maisonneuve". This land was on the north end of the large development project of Morgan Avenue, designed by Marius Dufresne. It was anticipated install all the latest public services from this period : Bathhouse (Bain Morgan - fav.me/d6n3dau and fav.me/d53znxb ), schools (French and English), fire station, theater, city hall, etc. Finally, in the south of this artery, the "Parc Morgan" (Morgan Park).

Oscar Dufresne was elected councilor was appointed by the mayor Alexandre Michaud, Head of Finance for city of Maisonneuve. This shrewd businessman so he administered the finances of the city in 1912 he managed to keep the sums necessary for the construction of this building, which was completed in 1914.

The "Marché Maisonneuve" has been, for many years, the main selling point of food in eastern Montreal. He welcomed Vegetable Growers from Montreal and even Île Jésus (Laval). He was so popular that some merchant arrived the day before to ensure have a place to sell their products the next day. Monday to Saturday was market day except 1st January, Good Friday and Christmas Day when it was closed. Some merchants stayed open until 11 pm the day before the closing days.

Place Genevilliers-Laliberté

In front of the "Marché Maisonneuve" stretches a vast public area. It has long been seen as a natural extension to Morgan Avenue and with years '50s it has been converted into a vast parking for customers "Marché Maisonneuve", the center of which stood a fountain adorned with beautiful statues.

In 1988, following a request from the "Atelier d'histoire Hochelaga-Maisonneuve", the vast parking area was named "Place Genevilliers-Laliberté" to emphasize its twinning with the French town of Gennevilliers, just in north of Paris and the presence of the fountain sculpture. Already projects developments and redeveloping of this area, extending from the "Marché Maisonneuve" to the Ontario Street, were on the drawing board. It is only very recently, to 2002-03, it has finally found his vocation as a public square. The redevelopment have been undertaken in those years at a cost of $ 2.6 million to emphasize the fountain and statues made ​​by Alfred Laliberté.

La fermière

"En 1914, après la déclaration de la guerre, Maisonneuve alors indépendante de Montréal, mais qui y fut annexée plus tard, forma le projet d'ériger une fontaine en face de son marché. Le contrat me fut octroyé et j'eus à traiter avec Marius Dufresne, ingénieur de la ville."
(In 1914, after the declaration of war, then Maisonneuve was independent of Montreal, but it was annexed later, formed the project to erect a fountain in front of the market. The contract was awarded to me and I had to deal with Marius Dufresne, city engineer. - free translation)
Alfred Laliberté: Mes souvenirs.

One of the bronze of the sculptor Alfred Laliberté entitled "La fermière". "At the center of the square is the allegorical fountain sculpture known as "La fermière", one of the masterpieces of Quebec sculptor Alfred Laliberté (1877-1953). It is a gardening of the seventeenth century, Louise Mauger, wearing a basket of vegetables and surrounded by three children holding respectively a turkey, fish and veal. This monument, made ​​in 1915, recently restored, is nearly six meters high and merit alone visit. "La fermière" was the first piece of bronze casting of this magnitude in Canada" - Text taken from the website of Tourism Hochelaga-Maisonneuve : www.tourismemaisonneuve.qc.ca

Among the 1000 sculptures by Alfred Laliberté, one of our greatest artists of the early twentieth century, there are very many that adorn the squares, parks and facades of public buildings in Montreal. He knew introduce the characters who built this country, as "big" as the most "humble" and express the values ​​of these settlers.

"Si j'ai pu exécuter une série de sujets du terroir d'autrelois, c'est parce que ces oeuvres renfermaient l'âme de la campagne. Cette âme, c'est d'ici qu'elle m'est venue. Comment ne pas aimer ce pays, coin de prédilection des artistes?"
(If I could execute a series of local topics of the past, it is because these works contained the soul of the campaign. This soul is here that it came to me. How not to love this country, place of predilection of artists ? - free translation)
Alfred Laliberté: Mes souvenirs.
"La fermière" was born of his desire to pay a special tribute to the first farmer woman of Ville-Marie in 1648. It is the centerpiece of the Place Gennevilliers-Laliberté which allows access to the "Marché Maisonneuve" ( fav.me/d53ynqy ) of Montreal. Alfred's knowledge of its history and roots make him choose "Louise la Gadoise" (Louise Mauger, wife of Pierre Gadois - fav.me/d6tuh5z ), although he would never appoint openly .

Description

A fountain sculpture
This concept is developed in the nineteenth century, both in Europe and America, while the water is more abundant in cities with more sophisticated systems of aqueducts. In this type of fountain, whose function is primarily aesthetic, it is no longer dominated by water volume, but the architecture and sculpture, whose water is one of the elements of composition.
The fountain is built around a hexagonal column. Its flared base extends three storied and arranged radially, where interspersed three basins, also hexagonal plates. The column has 12 compartments box, on two levels separated by a ring with three pools overlooking those of the base.
A set of triangular form
Distribution of sculptures obeys a pyramid scheme and architectural composition is a variation of shapes drawn from a triangle. This arrangement forms and their alternation, as the geometric pattern of the triangle is particularly Alfred Laliberté. It is an innovation at the time, the classic pedestal is still forming from the square.
First monument purely anectodique character where the privilege of the pedestal back to a humble heroin of daily.
This monument is a first. Until 1915, well after all the memorials erected in Montreal, spend characters or significant events in history. In addition, with the exception of Jeanne-Mance and Queen Victoria, women are relegated to accessories and symbolic roles.
This heroin of daily, it is the foster mother. This is a peasant, craggy face, whose solid frame and curvaceous accuse age and probably many pregnancies. But this woman exudes energy and is full of it carries from her basket filled with fruits and vegetables. This image is enhanced by the presence of water, as the woman is life. At the foot of the imposing gardening, frogs, about to jump, are jets of water with turtles posted below, on the ring of stone.
A realistic picture, while movement and contrasts
"At "Maison T. Carli" (T. Carli's company), I had already executed several statues in the very narrow space that was reserved for the plaster and cement moulders workers. This is where I did ask for the fountain market Maisonneuve, a turkey and a live calf. These animals posed as «gentlemen»." - Alfred Laliberté"
Three boys complete the picture. Engaged in a clinch with aminal, everyone is back and tries to control his prey struggling with the energy of despair. These movements and control the tense body strong contrast with the peaceful approach of gardening.
All the characters are energized by a movement, they do not pose, they are entered in the spontaneity of it. This dynamic movement is characteristic of the sculpture of Laliberté and adds a temporal dimension to the scenes described. Thus, one can easily imagine, without other evidence, that the four characters are preparing to go to market.
Life before urbanization
A tribute to Louise Mauger, the first farmer woman from Montreal
"The sculptors who perform a work to the glory of workers of native soil or set in stone the rustic beauty of our peaceful countryside is the Canadian soul which expresses itself." - Alfred Laliberté
The industrial boom which marks the beginning of the century drains campaigns to cities. This sudden shift from a predominantly rural and deeply traditional society pushes more and creates a lot of resistance. In the modern social order, an idealized past where faith, soil and language constitute the elements of survival French Canadian is opposed, is the dominant ideology.
Laliberté is part of the intelligentsia resistant and believes deeply in the values ​​of the past. On the other hand, he knows the history and heroes of the French colonization. It is therefore not surprising that, without naming it, this monument refers to Louise Mauger.
"Louise la Gadoise"
Born in France in 1598, she married Pierre Gadoys, around 1620, and had three children, both born in France and in Québec City.  From 1648, her husband receives, from Mr. de Maisonneuve, the first concession of Montreal, a land of 40 acres, making it the first "habitant" (farmer) of Montreal.
Sources : City of Montréal - ville.montreal.qc.ca/portal/pa…
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The North American landmass is divided amongst several neighbouring countries. The North American League - Solemn League and Covenant is a country formed from colonies of the various British powers (mostly English and Kemrese). The capital of the NAL-SLC is at Philadelphia; other cities of note are New Castreleon / Niuw Amsterdam; Boston; Georgetown; Alexandria and Chicago.

There are thirty Provinces that comprise the NAL-SLC, apart from the Unincorporated Territory, which seems to comprise its own self contained concatenation of provinces. Date of Brotherhood is shown in brackets. Note that Mississippi (25) was taken in the 1828 War with Louisiana and was subsequently returned as the Louisianan province of St. Onge. Note also that East and West Florida have two dates, their original date of signing the Covenant and their date of readmission after decades of Spanish Floridian occupation.

1. Alba Nuadh / New Scotland (1803)
2. Virginia (1803)
3. Castreleon New / Nieuw Batavie (1803)
4. Pennsylvaania (1803)
5. Aquanishuonigy / Six Nations (1803)
6. Massachussets Bay (1803)
7. West Florida (1803, 2005)
8. New Hampshire (1803)
9. Rhode Island (1803)
10. East Florida (1803, 2005)
11. Connecticutt (1803)
12. Kent (1803)
13. Ontario (1803)
14. Ter Mair / Maryland (1803)
15. Carolina (1803)
16. Bahamas (1803)
17. Jamaica (1803)
18. Jacobia (1803)
19. Oxbridge (1804)
20. Cherokee Nation (1806)
21. Tenisi (1812)
22. Kentuckey (1816)
23. Mobile (1820)
24. New Sweden (1824)
25. Mississippi (1828-1831)
26. Illinoise (1832)
27. Miami (1835)
28. Ouiscinsin (1835)
29. Utawia (1877)
30. Mascoutensi (1883)
31. Mueva Sefarad / New Spain* (1899)
32. Les Plaines (1904)
33. Nja Island / New Iceland (2001)
34. Nunavik (2004)

* Note that Mueva Sefarad actually means "New Iberia" in their language. It's a matter of historical-linguistic trucculence on the part of the English language not to name things properly.

Bahamas and Jamaica were conquered by the Presidency of Florida-Caribbea in the 1970s. The NAL-SLC and Florida-Caribbea have been skirmishing ever since; and since 1999, there has been an increase in the desire to at last reclaim the lost territories by citizens of the League. This was finally accomplished in 2004 with a big push by the Grand Coalition which finally broke the power of Florida-Caribbea.

To the northwards of all the American provinces lie the interesting and colourful Unincorporated Territory. A local might sum it up this way ... "Public life is interesting up here: there is little or no guidance from our 'Lord Governor' in Philadelphia, so we have made our own government over the years. We have our own Parliament that meets at Winnipeg down in Blackfoot Province. It's made up of MPs from all the Company lands, the Native lands and the quirky private lands. Technically, we're not supposed to do this, but Philadelphia doesn't seem to mind much about us if we don't mess with the RAF or Army bases. We're happy being Americans and all that, but we're also happy being a little different from the rest of America."

The UT are not a province in the official sense, but an extraprovincial territory (technically) governed from the obscure and understaffed Extraterritorial Bureau in Philadelphia. (They also have oversight of a few rocks in the Caribbean.) The Commissioner, known to the locals as the 'Lord Governor' is appointed by the Parliament, and his job is really to do no more than act as a liaison between the defacto provinces that make up the UT and the Parliament at Philadelphia. The UT govern themselves via the Council of Nations and Companies, which is essentially a parliament whose members are elected from the Company Lands, Native Provinces and private territories that make up the UT. A peculiar relationship exists between the UT and the Federal Government in Philadelphia, based upon the Treaty of Friendship and Harmony. Among the rights held by Winnipeg is the right to control immigration into the UT from the lower tier of NAL provinces. Technically, the UT, being an extraprovincial territory, is not a signatory to the Covenant and therefore not really part of the NAL except through the Bureau.

American citizens living in the UT are a somewhat independent lot and are, for the most part, happy with their position within the NAL. They enjoy considerable freedom, a very low tax structure and just enough of "civilised life" to keep in touch with the outside world. They also enjoy the fruits of a vèry wealthy land, given that thousands of folks from all around the world are willing to pay good hard silver to come in and watch caribuw and musk oxen cavort. There's loads of good fishing, hiking, climbing and qayacqing to be had as well.

Three French speaking countries are the Empire of Haiti, the Republic of Louisiana and the Intendancy of New France. New France is the one European colony that preferred independance over joining the NAL-SLC in 1803. Haiti, historically in constant turmoil due to its position near the center of Florida-Carribea, has for many years sought to gain control over the Haitian part of Hispannola Island. It has at last regained independence from Florida-Caribbea under the leadership of its newly crowned emperor, Dieu-Donné III and is currently involved in the 2004 Francophone Wars in Dominica.

The south and southwest is largely made up of former Spanish colonies: Alta California, Montrei, the Kingdom of Tejas, the Republic of Méjico and the former Florida-Carribea. Tejas and Alta California have made peace after decades of squabbling (and war between 1996 and 2002) over the territory of Deseret which lies along their mutual border. Flames of war were fanned by the Deseret Militia and both sides were indiscriminantly aided by Méjico. Oregon sided variously with Alta California and the Smith's Army of Deseret. Louisiana tended to side with Tejas, if for no other reason than fear of military reprisals for supporting any other faction. After the war, in which Mejico and A-C were victorious, the ousted Tejan royal family were restored to their throne. Florida-Carribea was an agglomeration of several former Spanish colonies that declared independance during the 1898 war between Spain and the NAL-SLC. Florida promptly began conquering the islands in the Carribean Sea and by 1913 left only Cuba and Haiti independant. The 1953 revolution in Cuba left it open to assault, and it was conquered thereafter. Haiti, independant since 1804, has been conquered and then liberated twice in the last hundred years. F-C was picked apart and at last destroyed by the Grand Coalition in 2004. The only Floridian territory whose future remains uncertain as of late 2004 is the European Occupation Zone (marked "E.O.Z." on the map).

In the northwest are Alyeska, former Russian territory, and the Peoples Ecotopic Republic of Oregon. Alyeska is largely Inuit, though there are many Russian and Japanese towns along the coast and in former gold bearing areas. Many descendants of American ex-pats can be found in those places as well, due to the gold fever of the 19th century. The Oregonians speak a dialect of English

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Manoir de Saint-Ours (part 2)


2538, Rue de l'Immaculée Conception, Saint-Ours, Québec, J0G 1P0


Pour le texte en français - fav.me/d6podra

Other known names : Domaine seigneurial de Saint-Ours


Pierre de Saint-Ours Sieur de l’Échaillon de l’Assomption et de Saint-Jean Deschaillons

Pierre de Saint-Ours was born in October 1640 and baptized June 27, 1641 in Veurey-Voroize in Dauphine, son of Henri de Saint-Ours Sieur de l’Échaillon (1608-XXXX), lieutenant of infantry, and Jeanne de Calignon (1613-XXXX), and direct descendant of Petrus de Sancto Orso, who lived in the early fourteenth century. In 1658, Pierre enlisted as a cadet in the Carignan Regiment and was promoted to ensign the following year and assigned to the "Compagnie de Lemongne". He was commissioned a captain in the "Régiment de Carignan-Salières" February 7, 1665, following the resignation of Captain Lemongne, and sailed for Quebec May 24, 1665. He arrived in Nouvelle-France September 14, 1665 and "Company" is assigned to "Fort Richelieu" (Fort Saurel) for winter 1665-1666.

Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy, who had arrived at the beginning of August 1665, with a mandate of King Louis XIV of waging a war against the Iroquois attacking unscrupulously the French position defended little far. The first expedition was to take place in the fall of 1665, but the disease of some military postpone it to the following year. September 14, 1666 Tracy commanded a strong contingent of the "Régiment de Carignan-Salières", volunteers residents and allies "sauvages" began an incursion into Iroquois territory . They reached the first Mohawk villages in mid-October. Given the number, the Iroquois fled into nearby forests. The French burn villages and provision of corn, leaving the "Indian" without resources in their returns. Nicolas Perrot, fur trader, who made ​​a trip next year, reported that more than 400 Indians died of starvation after the attack. Pierre de Saint-Ours would have taken part in this expedition with some of his men, while the others were assigned to champlain, in the Government of Trois-Rivières. In 1667, the Mohawks and Onneyouts came to Quebec to sign a peace that will last 17 ​​years. What the three other Iroquois Nations had done before the Tracy's departure for the "Iroquoisie".

After this expedition, Pierre de Saint-Ours rejoined his companions in Champlain, January 8, 1668, he married Marie Mullois, daughter of Thomas Mullois Sieur de la Croix squire and lieutenant in the regiment of the Carabinier and Anne Giraud, born 30 October 1643 in Saint-Honore de Blois, Orléanais. The same day, a marriage contract was drawn up by the notary Étienne Pézard de la Touche, also lieutenant of the garrison of Trois-Rivières and Seigneur de Champlain, in the presence of :
  • Daniel de Rémy de Courcelles - Governor of the Nouvelle-France;
  • Jean Talon - Intendant for Canada, Acadia and Newfoundland;
  • the father Jacques Marquette - Jesuit priest and missionary - explorer of the central regions of the United States - have discovered the source of the Mississippi;
  • Charles Legardeur de Tilly - former governor of the Trois-Rivières (1648-1650) - co-founder of the Community of Inhabitants;
  • Thomas Xavier Tarieu de Lanouguère (Lanaudière, La Naudière) - commander in the garrison of Montreal;
  • Étienne Pézard de la Touche - captain of the garrison of the Trois-Rivières - husband of the sister of Marie Mullois;
  • Madeleine Mullois - sister of Marie Mullois.
At the same time, he received a "seigneurie" which lay on the south shore of the Saint-Laurent to the Yamaska ​​River, between that of Antoine Pécaudy Sieur de Contrecoeur (captain of the "Compagnie de Contrecoeur") and Pierre de Saurel (captain of the "Compagnie de Saurel"). He came to Montreal with his wife. The title of this "seigneurie" were given to him October 29, 1672, and shortly after he moved there in a modest wooden house he built along the Saint-Laurent. Many of the soldiers who served under his command, came to join him to develop this "seigneurie".

Pierre Saint-Ours and Mary Mullois have 11 children :
  • Louis (1668-1687) - died August 11, 1687 in Fort-de-la-Galette;
  • Jean-Baptiste (1670-1747) - married with Marguerite Le Gardeur (1705);
  • Marie-Barbe (1670-1705) - married with René Le Gardeur de Beauvais (1694);
  • Pierre (1673-1759) - married with Hélène-Françoise Celoron (1710);
  • Angélique (1677-1713);
  • Élizabeth (1679-1719) - married with Claude-Charles LeRoy de la Poterie (1700);
  • Marie-Anne (1675-1738) - married with Jean DeMines (1693);
  • Jeanne (1671-1723) - married with Antoine de Pecaudy (1701);
  • Joseph (1681-1701);
  • Marie-Thérèse (1684-XXXX);
  • Marie-Madeleine (1686-1686).
When, in 1673, Louis de Buade de Frontenac undertook an expedition to found the Fort Cataracoui (Frontenac) to Lake Ontario, Pierre should command a detachment. At the same time, he was given a second "seigneurie" located in the vicinity of the Assomption River, and in 1687 he inherited the Saint-Jean Des Chaillons near the Duchesne River.

Pierre de Saint-Ours was not a fortunate French nobleman, so that his "seigneurie" grew very slowly. Like many of his contemporaries, he tried his hand at various trade. We find, in 1678, at the annual fair of Montreal, there holding a box (booth), where Outaouais indians came in large numbers for trade their furs. As many notables of Nouvelle-France, he was sent to join the goup of Montreal, to advise the governor and the intendant. In 1679 he was given command of Fort Chambly with a mission to stop the illegal trade of brandy with the "New England". A few months later, he was himself accused of having had such a business, this is one of the few spots on his slate, he was forgiven.
"Je dois rendre compte à Monseigneur de l'extrême pauvreté de plusieurs familles... toutes nobles ou vivant comme telles. La famille de M. de Saint-Ours est à la tête. Il est bon gentilhomme du Dauphiné (parent du maréchal d'Estrade) chargé d'une femme et de dix enfants. Le père et la mère me paroissent dans un véritable désespoir de leur pauvreté. Cependant les enfants ne s'épargnent pas car j'ai vu deux grandes filles couper les blés et tenir la charrue."
(I am accountable to Monseigneur of the extreme poverty of many families ... all noble or living as such. The family of M. de Saint-Ours is the head. He is a gentleman from Dauphiné (parent of maréchal d'Estrade) responsible for a wife and ten children. The father and mother appear to me in real despair of poverty. However, children are not saving is because I saw two big girls cut the corn and the plow. - free translation)
Excerpt from a letter from the Governor-General Jacques-René de Brisay de Denonville in 1686, to the Minister Jean-Baptiste Antoine Colbert, marquis de Seignelay et de Châteauneuf-sur-Cher, baron de Lignières.
The Saint-Ours family with their ten children have missed wheat for nearly eight months on this year of 1686. The fate of Marie-Madeleine, born May 25, 1686, and died the following November 15, is probably related to these nutritional deficiencies. While Saint-Ours was considering a possible return to his homeland to resume his military service, some interceded on his behalf to get him a grant of "100 écus" that allowed him to remain in Nouvelle-France. In 1687 he was put in charge of ordering the "Troupes de la Marine" stationed in Ville-Marie. To be closer to his men, he came to settle on the island of Montreal, Nostre-Dame (Notre-Dame) street, where he built a small wooden house on land donated by the "Hospitalières" of Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal.

The army of 2,000 men led by Sir William Phips, carried on 34 ships left Boston, upbound in the Saint-Laurent River in late summer 1690. They arrived in Quebec on 16 October and Phips sent an emissary to summon Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac (governor of Nouvelle-France) to render Quebec. It was during this exchange that Frontenac had delivered his now famous , "Je n'ai point de réponse à faire à votre général que par la bouche de mes canons" (I have no answer to your general only by the mouths of my cannons). The siege of Quebec began on October 18, while the English had settled in Pointe-Lévy, opposite to Quebec. They even landed at Beauport, but they were quickly repulsed by guns placed at the top of the cliff. At these events, Frontenac was given command of a battalion to Pierre Saint-Ours. He filled the office so that he was appointed in 1693 by Governor Frontenac, "Premier Capitaine des Troupes de la Marine" (First Captain of Navy Troops) in Nouvelle-France.

After taking time off to recuperate, Pierre de Saint-Ours, was ordained by Hector de Callière, then Governeur of Montreal, go to the "lac des Deux-Montagnes" to ambush a band of Iroquois that were known to attack the settlers of Montreal. This operation was a failure, the Iroquois were able to thwart his plans.

In August 1701, while he was negotiating the "Grande Paix" (Great Peace), with French autorities, the head of the Wendat nation Tionontate, Kondiaronk, died suddenly at the age of 52. He received honors funeral of states, his funeral procession was led by Pierre de Saint-Ours and his men and his body was buried in the church of Notre-Dame in Montreal. It is in his honor that the lookout of Parc du Mont-Royal, built by architects "Maxwell, Marchand and Haskell" in 1906, is named "belvédère Kondiaronk" in 1998. June 14, 1704, Louis XIV gave him the title of "chevalier de Saint-Louis", and he left the military service on June 9, 1708. His son Jean-Baptiste (1670-1747) succeeded him as head of the company.

On 29 November 1705, aged 62 years, died his wife Marie. Some time later, Pierre de Saint-Ours threw his sights on a girl of 17 years to replace Marie, but the project never materialized. Nearly three years after the departure of Marie, Pierre married in Batiscan (near Champlain), the widow Marguerite Legardeur, daughter of CCharles Legardeur de Tilly (1616-1695) and Genevieve Juchereau (1632-1687), widow of Louis-Joseph-Hyacinthe LeGoues. The couple settled in Ville-Marie until 1710, when Pierre offers his rented house to retire das his "seigneurie de Saint-Ours". October 21 , 1724, then aged about 84 years , Pierre died at his home in Saint-Ours and was buried in the cemetery of Contrecoeur who had a parish while in Saint-Ours there was that a small wooden chapel served by the priest of Contrecoeur. We can believe that he was cremated and his ashes were carried into the church of Saint-Ours few years later.

Jean-Baptiste De Saint-Ours Des Chaillons (1670-1747)

Jean-Baptiste is the twin brother of Marie-Barbe, was born at the manor of Saint-Ours (wooden house built by his father on the banks of the Saint-Laurent, no the one in the photo above) and baptized 11 October 1670 in Saurel (Sorel), son of Pierre de Saint-Ours and Marie Mullois. At age of 18 he enlisted in the army following the footsteps of his father, earning by "merit" its military promotions and not by heredity. In 1890 he was promoted to the position of ensign. The ensign was a non-commissioned officers in charge of carrying the flag of a company, it was also called the "porte-enseignes" (standard-bearers). Finding that his son did not progressing quickly enough the military echelons, Pierre de Saint-Ours multiplied requests and recommendations to promote the qualities of Jean-Baptiste. In 1693 he was granted the rank of "Lieutenant Réformé". A "Lieutenant Réformé" has substantially the same resposabilités a "Lieutenant en Pied", but receives only part of his pay.

In 1695, when Jean-Baptiste was 25 years old, Governor Louis de Buade de Frontenac gave him the mission to go to Albany to try to capture the white traders and Iroquois that prevailed in the region. With a few men and a couple of allies "sauvages" he returned with captured one Dutch and three Mohawks. Its various success earned him a promotion to the rank of "Lieutenant in Foot" in 1702, then was promoted to captain June 9, 1708. In 1703 he obtained the title of "Garde-Marine" :
In France, under the Ancien Régime, the Gardes de la Marine (Guards of the Navy), or Gardes-Marine were young gentlemen picked and maintained by the king in his harbours to learn the navy service, and to train to be officers. They were organized in companies, divided up between the harbors of Brest, Toulon, and Rochefort. All naval officers were drawn from these companies, which were the equivalent of the current naval school.
The king paid schoolmasters to instruct them in everything they needed to know to be good officers - there were masters in mathematics, drawing, writing, fortification, naval architecture and construction,dance, hydrography, fencing etc.
They sailed on the king's ships, on which they served as soldiers, and acted in all roles on board. Undergoing further training at sea, they honed the skills they had learned ashore. Their orders, in cooperation with the captain of the vessel, included four hours intended for their different exercises. The first hour was in piloting and hydrography, the second for musketry and military manoeuvres, the third for cannon exercise, the fourth one for training in steering a ship, if time allowed, supervised by the captain or second in command, done by each of the gardes in turn.

Source : Wikipedia - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardes_d…
On 25 November 1705, Jean-Baptiste De Saint-Ours Des Chaillons and his fiancee of 19 years, Marguerite Le Gardeur de Repentigny can be found in the Le Gardeur family home, in Montreal, where the notary Antoine Adhémar de Saint-Martin wrote the marriage contract. That same day, in the Church Notre-Dames of Montreal, as the wedding celebration attended by the elite of society in Nouvelle-France and many of his fellow officers. Jean-Baptiste had made its entry into one of the oldest noble family of Nouvelle-France. The Le Gardeur had blood ties with Couillard and Louis Hébert (first settler of Nouvelle-France). The couple had at least eight children (some say 9 children):
  • Marguerite (1707-1728);
  • Charles-Joseph-Pierre (1708-1757) - death on the battlefield;
  • Jean-Baptiste Antoine (1709-1728);
  • Agathe-Geneviève (1711-1711);
  • Pierre-Roch (1712-1782), married with Charlotte des Champs de Bois-Hébert (1745);
  • Jeanne-Élisabeth (1714-1767), nun "Hospitalière" of Québec;
  • Angélique (1715-1739), nun "Hospitalière" of Québec;
  • Marie-Angélique (1718-XXXX).
August 29, 1708, Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Ours seconded Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville at the head of an expedition whose objective was to take Haverhill, Massachusetts depriving the establishment of the support of the Iroquois. The troop of 100 soldiers and volunteers "habitants" with "native" Algonquins and Abenakis raided the village of thirty houses, located on the Merrimack River, and then returned to Ville-Marie with losses of 10 killed and more than 19 injured. This attack took place in the framework of the "Second Intercolonial War" (Queen Anne's War), which lasted from 1702 to 1713, when English and French were fighting for blunt the North American territory. The pretext is the succession of Charles II to the throne of Spain, but that is not the subject of our story ...

In 1709, Francis Nicholson and Samuel Vetch planned an attack against Nouvelle-France with the financial and logistical support of Queen Mary II of England. This plan involved a ground assault on Montreal via Lake Champlain combined with a maritime attack against Quebec. Having been warned that the British were preparing to attack Ville-Marie, the governor of Montreal, Claude de Ramezay gave Saint-Ours command of five companies to reach out to the English along the Richelieu River. The French left Montreal on 28 July, but returned shortly after, without fighting. The army commanded by Nicholson was recalled upon arrival at Lake Champlain. Many of his soldiers were sick, the Iroquois, who had agreed to support the company, were absent, and naval support was redirected to support Portugal.

In the fall of 1717, Jean-Baptiste received an assignment to Fort Kaministiquia (Caministigoyan - now Thunder Bay), which had been built to protect the fur trading post founded by the brother Greysolon thirty years earlier. He left Margaret, his wife, the task of managing the family business in the colony, while he, took a keen interest in pelting commece. He was given command of the fort between 1721 and 1727, and he was ordered to send the "Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit" (Detroit) in 1728, where he served for two years.

Upon his return to Ville-Marie, he was make "Chevalier de l'Ordre Militaire de Saint-Louis", and in 1731 applied for the vacant post of King's Lieutenant of the Trois-Rivières, but this function was given to Claude-Michel Bégon de la Cour. He was bestowed the former position held by Begon, Major of Quebec, and two years later the Lieutenant of the King in Quebec. In 1742, when the governor of the Trois-Rivières, Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, was appointed governor of the "Louisiane", Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Ours offer his candidacy to replace him in Trois-Rivières, but this offer was refused.

While still based in the city of Quebec, Jean-Baptiste died June 8, 1747 and was buried in the parish church of Quebec the next day. At his death his share of the manor of Saint-Ours goes to his son Pierre-Roch de Saint-Ours. Upon his death, his widow, Marguerite Le Gardeur de Repentigny, taking to heart the family business. During the reunification of the churches of the region into one parish (Saurel), she worries about the fate of the ashes his stepfather, Pierre de Saint-Ours :
Nos seigneurs Les gouverneur Général et Intendant de la Nouvelle-France.
Nos Seigneurs,
Marguerite Le Gardeur de Repentigny Vve de Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Ours Escuyer sieur d'Eschaillons vivant chevalier de l'Ordre de St Louis Lieutenant de Roy des ville et Gouvernement de Québec Est obligé de recourir à vos yeux, Nos Seigneurs, une injustice Nouvelle qui vient de luy estre faite et à ses habitants par Monseigneur de Pontbriand, Evêque de Québec, au préjudice de ce qui a été réglé en 1721, par le district des paroisses et ordonné par vos prédécesseurs MM. de Vaudreuil et Bégon, fait par M. Colet ancien Procureur général approuvé ensuite par Sa Majesté et renvoyé en ce pays pour y estre suivi.
Il S'agit de l'Église paroissiale de la Seigneurie de St Ours Scituée au milieu de la Seigneurie. Et dont le mary de la Suppliante a fourny le Terrain et dépendances qui vient d'estre rasée et détruite par ordre de Mon d. Seigneur l'Evêque, et les matériaux d'icelle, ornements et vases sacrés transportés dans une autre Seigneurie; Les cendre de feu M. de Saint-Ours beau-père de la Suppliante, et bienfaiteur de cette paroisse abandonnées y reposent encore et sont Exposées comme il ne convient point que soient les reliques des Chrétiens, cette église a été détruite malgré les représentations de ses paroissiens et à l'insçu de la Suppliante, mais nonobstant un pareil attentat, La sppliante ne pouvant s'imaginer que la Juridiction Episcopale soit revêtue d'une authorié Despotique, a recours à vous qui l'este, Nos Seigneurs, de celle de Sa Majesté A ce qu'il vous plaise ordonner que la De. Eglise Sera rétablie dans le même lieu ou elle Etoit aux frais et depens du d. seigneur Evêque et que les ornements et vases sacrés apartenant à la de. Eglise ainsy que les deniers de la fabrique y seront rapportés, Et la Suppliante Continuera ses voeux pour la Santé et prospérité de vos Grandeurs.
M. Repentigny St Tour Dechaillon
This letter had no effect and Marguerite died April 23, 1757.

Pierre-Roch de Saint-Ours (1712-1782)

Pierre-Roch was born February 15, 1712 in Ville-Marie, son of Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Ours The Chaillons (1670-1747) and Marguerite Le Gardeur de Repentigny (1686-1757). Like his ancestors, very soon he joined the army, and shows significant success. At age 21, in 1733, he was created an ensign and was appointed Lieutenant in 1644 :
"Sur les témoignages avantageux que Monsieur le Marquis de Beauharnois m'a rendus de votre zèle et de votre application pour le service, je vous ai procuré une des Lieutenances qui vaquaient dans les troupes du Canada; Et j'envoie votre lettre du Service à Monsieur le Marquis de Beauharnois qui vous la remettra. Je suis persuadé que celà vous engagera à redoubler de Zèle pour mériter d'autres grâces..."
(On favorable testimony that Mr. Marquis de Beauharnois has made to me your zeal and your application for the service I provided you Lieutenancies of going about in the troops of Canada, and I sent your Service's letter to Mr. the Marquis de Beauharnois that you deliver. I am convinced that this tell you commit to redouble their zeal to earn more grace ... - free translation)
From a letter of the Minister of French Navy, Jean Frédéric Phélypeaux Comte de Maurepas, sent to the Governor General of Nouvelle-France, Charles de la Boische Marquis de Beauharnois, on April 24, 1744.
On June 30, 1745 in Quebec City, he married Charlotte des Champs de Bois-Hébert, daughter of Louis Deschamps (1679-1736) and Louise-Geneviève De Ramesay (1699-1769), born September 1st, 1724 in Quebec City. The couple had at least five children :
  • Jeanne-Geneviève (1746-1832);
  • Paul-Roch (1747-1814) - married with Marie-Josephe (Josette) Godefroy de Tonnancour (1776);
  • Geneviève-Charlotte (1750-1774);
  • Charles-Louis-Roch (1753-1834) - squire and aide-de-camp of General Frédéric Haldimand - married with Josephte (Josette) Murray (1789);
  • Charles-Quinson (1760-1818) - married with Marie-Anne MacKay (1785).
In 1748 in recognition of his excellent service, he received the rank of captain. He took that an important part by distinguishing itself on the battlefields during various campaigns, he found himself awarded the coveted Knights "Croix des Chevaliers de l'Ordre royal et militaire de Saint-Louis". An order was issued by the Minister of the Navy, Nicolas Berryer Comte de la Ferrière, to the Governor of Montreal, Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, to give him the following letter:
"De par le Roy
Sa Majesté ayant associé à l'Ordre militaire de Saint-Louis le sr St Ours des Chaillons Capitaine d'Infanterie en Canada Et le service auquel il est destiné ne lui permettant pas de se rendre à sa suite pour être reçû audit Ordre, Elle a commis et commet le Sr Marquis de Vaudreuil Gouverneur son Lieutenant général de la Nouvelle-France pour le recevoir et admettre en son nom, voulant qu'il se rende aux jours et lieu qui lui seront prescrits par le dit Sr Marquis de Vaudreuil pour prêter en ses mains le serment qu'il est obligé de faire en la dite qualité de Chevalier.
Fait à Versailles le premier janvier 1759.
Beryer"

(By the King - His Majesty having associated with the "Ordre militaire de Saint-Louis" Sr St Ours des Chaillons Infantry Captain in Canada and the service which it is intended does not allow him to go after him to be received at said Order It committed and commits Sr Marquis de Vaudreuil the Governor his Lieutenant General in Nouvelle-France to receive into his name, wanting him to go to the time and place that will be prescribed by the Sr Marquis de Vaudreuil said to take in his hands on oath that he is obliged to make in the known quality of "Chevalier". - Done at Versailles January 1, 1759 - Beryer - free translation)
Early in the mid-eighteenth century, he tried to unite the fields of the "seigneurie" of Saint-Ours that different succesions were divided. After the conquest of 1760, he made a number of concessions in this seigneurie to make it finally successful. He died in Montreal September 24, 1782.

Charles-Louis-Roch de Saint-Ours (1753-1834)

Charles-Louis Roch, commonly named Charles, was born on August 24, 1753 in Quebec, son of Pierre-Roch de Saint-Ours (1712-1782) and Charlotte des Champs de Bois-Hébert (1724-XXXX). As the vast majority of men in this family, Charles began a military career. First as militia officer, he hastened to offer his services to the british conquerors to combat incursions of Americans independentist in 1775. If he enlisted in a corps of volunteers to defend Fort Sain-Jean, where he was taken prisoner in the American colonies during the surrender of the fort.

In 1777, upon his return to the Province of Quebec, he received the rank of lieutenant of militia on June 26. Also in 1777 he was noticed by James Murray's successor as governor, Sir Guy Carleton chose him to become his field assistant. He received a promotion to lieutenant-captain in the "84th Regiment of Foot (Royal Highland Emigrants)", in 1783. In 1785 he traveled to the UK with his cousin Charles-Louis Tarieu de Lanaudière. They were received at the court of England, where he made ​​a great impression on King George III. It was also during this trip that he could meet in France "Louis XVI", in Prussia, "Friedrich der Große" (Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great). During the visit of Prince William Henry (later King William IV) in Sorel, 16 September 1787, he was one of the four field assistant. This is to emphasize that visit Fort Sorel was renamed "Fort William Henry".

In October 1789 in Quebec, Charles-Louis-Roch de Saint-Ours married Josephte (Josette) Murray, daughter of Richard Murray et Josephte Turpin, and niece of Governor James Murray. The couple had three children:
  • Josephte-Marie-Anne (1793-1848) - married with Pierre-Dominique Debartzch (1815);
  • Charles-Pierre (1798-1816);
  • François-Roch (1800-1839) - "les patriotes" (patriots), especially the notary Jean-Joseph Girouard, presented it as the "bane of detainees", "the bear Sheriff" hated by prisoners.
Quickly climbing the ranks in the army of "His Majesty", Charles became lieutenant-colonel of the militia in battalion of Chambly in 1790, honorary major in the army in 1794, and on December 2, 1795 named captain of the "60th Regiment of Foot". Called, as was his brother Paul-Roch, to sit in the Legislative Council, Saint-Ours are entered December 2, 1808 and remained there until his death in 1834. At the beginning of the War of 1812, as colonel of the "militia battalion of Saint-Ours," Charles strongly condemned the attitude of "habitants" who had protested against conscription. He was assigned to the "Fort William Henry" (Sorel) with his battalion until his discharge on November 26, 1812. Was recalled in October 1813 to serve in Chambly, where he remained until the end of the conflict.

On the death of his father in 1782, Charles de Saint-Ours had inherited some parts of "seigneuries" of Saint-Ours, The L’Assomption and Deschaillons. Therefore, he settled two objectives: to continue the reparcelling seigneurie of Saint-Ours started by his father and build a mansion where he could direct the activities of that "seigneurie". He devoted over 30 years to rebuild and enhancement of the original "seigneurie". He conceded more than 400 concessions between 1781 and 1827 and opened several ways to connect these lands and facilitate trade. In 1792 he started the work on the erection of his mansion in an area that constituted by already granted exchanges and purchases of land with his tenants.

Starting in 1821, he devoted his main energy education. He assisted Antoine Girouard in the founding of the College of Saint-Hyacinthe, and founded the "Association to facilitate educational opportunities in Chambly River". This association was designed to identify the most talented children and to ensure a proper education for eight years. Charles encouraged the construction of schools in the territory of Saint-Ours.

Physically robust and healthy, Charles-Louis-Roch de Saint-Ours died November 11, 1834 in Saint-Ours in Lower Canada, when he was still active, so far. Josephte Murray, his wife died in 1840 and was buried in the parish church alongside Charles-Louis-Roch ...

The "Seigneurie de St-Ours"

October 29, 1672, the Governor Louis de Buade de Frontenac conceded to Pierre de Saint-Ours a "seigneurie" 2 miles of frontage on the Saint-Laurent River by 1 mile deep. This "seigneurie" was bounded on the north-east by those, Saint-Hyacinthe, Bourgchemin and Saurel (Sorel), south-west of those; Contrecoeur and Saint-Denis. It was crossed by the River Iroquois (Richelieu) and streams La Prade, La Plante and Salvayle.

Pierre Saint-Ours was a grateful man to those who had been faithful to him. And 5 November 1673 he began to distribute land to his former comrades in arms. That day he granted land to :
  • Pierre Mésnard dit Xainctonge - soldier;
  • Pierre Dextras dit La Vigne - soldier;
  • Jean Pinsonneau dit La Fleur - soldier;
  • Jean Sélurier dit Des Lauriers - soldier;
  • Louis Jean dit Fontaine - soldier (come from "Compagnie de La Fouille" to "Compagnie de Saint-ours" between 1665 and 1669);
  • François Chèvrefils dit La Lime - soldier;
  • Antoine Arnaud dit La Rose - soldier;
  • Laurent Bouy dit La Vergne - soldier;
  • Méry Arpin dit Poitevin - soldier;
And on November 6, 1673, to :
  • Louis Charbonnier dit Saint-Lauran - sergeant;
  • Jean Bellet dit Gazaille - soldier;
  • Jean Regeas dit La Prade - soldier;
  • Jean Rouy (Le Roy) dit Petit Jean le Gascon - soldier;
  • André Marigny dit L'Esveillé - soldier;
  • Pierre Meunier dit La Pierre - soldier;
  • Mathurin Banlier dit La Perle - soldier;
  • Luc Poupart dit La Fortune - soldier;
  • François de Guire dit La Rose - soldier;
  • Jean Bouvet dit La Chambre ou sieur de La Chambre - surgeon;
And on November 7, 1673, to :
  • Mathurin Collin dit La Liberté - soldier;
  • Charles Desmarès - soldier;
  • Jean Duval - soldier;
  • Léon-Mathieu Batanchot dit Lalande - soldier;
  • François-César de La Gardelette - soldier;
  • André Sire (engaged by Pierre Gaigneur);
  • Jacques Pigeon dit Petit Jean des Mines (from "Compagnie de Salière").
Of course there were other disposals of land thereafter, but this was the birth of a seigneurie. Each settler had cleared a portion of its land to live and grow crops there.

April 25, 1674, is increased the territory of the "seigneurie" of Saint-Ours by conceding to him the islands opposite the River Iroquois (Richelieu). That same year they built the first place dedicated to the worship, a small wooden chapel dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, where the offices would be provided by an itinerant priest :
"De la Mission de Saint-Ours, Contrecoeur et autres lieux
Monsieur Duplein, prêtre âgé de 40 ans, venu de France on l'année 1672, dessert la seigneurie de Saint-Ours, Contrecoeur, Verchère, La Valterie et le fort Saint-Louis (Chambly).
Saint-Ours. — Saint-Ours est distant de Montréal de 12 lieues et contient 2 lieues le long du grand fleuve du côté du sud, il y a 13 familles et 89 âmes, il y a une petite chapelle de pieux dédiée à la Conception de la Sainte-Vierge, elle a 30 pieds de long sur 20 de large avec un presbytère où le prêtre fait sa résidence et est en pension chez le seigneur du lieu."

Mandements : lettres pastorales et circulaires des évêques de Québec, Imprimerie générale A. Coté 1887. Henri Têtu (1849-1915) et C.-O. Gagnon (Charles-Octave), 1857-1926 (pp 124 et 125)

According to the same publication (page 290), in 1692, the priest M. Volant provides the service in the chapel of Saint-Ours whose official records were opened in 1681. In 1726 the priest Jean-Pierre de Miniac erected the first stone church, but it was not until 1750 that it affects the first resident pastor of the parish of the "Immaculée-Conception-de-Saint-Ours". In 1761, they opened the first school of Saint-Ours and inaugurates the new stone church built by Father Joseph-François d'Youville, the son of the founder of the "Soeurs grises de Montréal".

May 7, 1837

Of course, I will not give you here a full account of the events surrounding the Patriots Rebellion of 1837-1838, but let me tell you that the first anti-coercive assembly, that is protest against the ruling regime, was held at Saint-Ours on May 7, 1837, Chaired by Côme-Séraphin Cherrier de Saint-Denis, Jean-Baptiste (Jean-Philippe) Boucher Belleville, teacher at Saint-Charles, is the secretary, in front of nearly 1200 voters of all counties, and the doctor Wolfred Nelson (from Saint Denis), Charles-Olivier Côté (MP of Lacadie), and Siméon Marchesseault (teacher at Saint-Charles) were the main speakers. Twelve important resolutions were adopted there, in direct opposition to the 10 resolutions submitted by the British Interior Minister, John Russell in the House of Assembly of Lower Canada, on March 6, 1837. Under the name of "Déclaration de Saint-Ours", they invite the "Canadian" to resistance, while "Russell Resolutions" were the English response to the 92 resolutions adopted by the "Parti Patriotes" and subject to the British authorities in 1834. This meeting quickly became a model for all meetings of the "Parti Patriotes" will follow.

Archibald Atcheson, Earl of Gosford, governor of Canada, in his "Proclamation of June 15," prohibits public gatherings, proclaims such seditious meetings and ordered the magistrates and militia officers to prevent them. Faced with growing unrest in rural areas, it uses military reinforcements from Maritime provinces. In August 1837, he dissolved the legislature because the "Parti Patriotes" refused to vote for his budget.

Despite this prohibition, the meeting of Saint-Ours is followed by thirty other such meetings during the summer and early fall 1837. While some describe them as "attempts by fanatics people and talk of an apparent dementia", others consider the implications of the "Déclaration de Saint-Ours" as important as the "Declaration of Human Rights" in France in 1789 when reformists demanded in fact a sacred right.

For more information, see Wikipedia - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_Ca…

The "Manoir de Saint-Ours"

Description

The "Manoir de Saint-Ours" domain is an assembly comprising a mansion, outbuildings and land. The mansion is an imposing stone building on a rectangular plan, two and a half floors, wearing a hip roof. It has a side brick annex. It was built in 1792 and modified in the nineteenth century. The area also includes a stable wooden rectangular decorated with a central gable and two turrets, a wooden shed with a square plan topped with a pavilion roof and a garage made ​​of wood. The garden is composed of a variety, groves and flower beds species trees. The area extends from the Richelieu River to the west, and the way the Patriots to the east, on the northern edge of the old village of Saint-Ours, in the municipality of the same name.

This property is listed heritage site.

Heritage value

The "Manoir de Saint-Ours" domain has a proprietary interest for its historical value. It is a witness of the feudal regime and the family it belongs to. This seigneurie is granted by the intendant Jean Talon (1626-1694) Pierre de Saint-Ours (1640-1724) in 1672. Among its owners are his little son Charles de Saint-Ours (1753-1834), who built the second mansion (the current building), and François-Roch de Saint-Ours (1800-1839), which served on the legislative Council of Lower Canada in 1830 and became sheriff of Montreal in 1837. In 2006, the manor always belonged to the descendants of the "seigneurs" of Saint-Ours, which is a unique case in Quebec.

The "Manoir de Saint-Ours" domain also has a proprietary interest in its architectural value. The mansion is representative of the evolution of this type of housing. Erected in 1792, it was in the beginning, like the mansions of that time, a French-inspired home more spacious than the other, which served as both residence and the "seigneur" office. However the housing still experiencing significant transformations in the nineteenth century, in the spirit of villas located on the outskirts of Quebec City and Montreal. These villas are as big mansions reflecting varied stylistic borrowings and including many hierarchical parts. Isolated from neighboring buildings, they are distinguished by their extensive grounds, their close relationship with the natural environment and the presence of gardens. The first signs of transformation of the "Manoir de Saint-Ours" appear in 1845, when expanded and renovated and available openings is changed, the front door is centered and then the windows are symmetrically distributed according to the precepts of Neoclassicism. It also includes scenic elements since large covered porch running on three sides and topped with balconies on the east and west facades is added. These elements constitute the outdoor extension of the home, creating a link with the environment and allow occupants to enjoy the scenery. In the same vein, the walls of the Annex are covered in ivy and outbuildings were built in the middle of the woods so as to blend into the environment. In 1870, further work is performed. The mansion is a heightened floor and wearing a hip roof with dormers. The new volume, hipped roof, the cornice corbels, the frieze decorated with circles and diamonds, balusters and angle braces in the gallery give it a more refined look and relate to the type of the Italian villa. In addition, the "Manoir de Saint-Ours" has a very good state of preservation. Since the changes in the nineteenth century, all suffered no major changes. The mansion retains the appearance that he was given in 1870 and several of its outbuildings still exist.

The "Manoir de Saint-Ours" domain also has a proprietary interest in its landscape value. The mansion is located in the middle of a park where a French garden (characterized by a balanced and rigorous composition) is integrated in a more informal English garden. Thus, a roundabout flower occupies the front of the mansion and garden, consisting of geometric shapes groves, is arranged in the middle of a wooded area. Irregular paths, punctuated by decorative elements such as rustic stops and floral arrangements, through the woods. This place reflects the privileged picturesque mind for this type of home.

Characteristic elements

Characteristics related to the overall interest of the "Manoir de Saint-Ours" domain include, among others :
  • the presence of the mansion and dependencies;
  • the landscaping;
  • the relationship between structures and their environment.
Characteristics related to the architectural interest of the feudal "Manoir de Saint-Ours" include, among others :
  • its materials, including stone masonry, the metal sheet roofing to the Canadian style, roofing of the gallery cover with metal strips sheet and two strains of ornate brick chimney at each end of the ridge;
  • its elements related to neoclassicism, the symmetrical composition of the facade and the regular arrangement of openings;
  • its elements attached to the picturesque stream, whose gallery on three sides covered by a shed roof and balconies of the east and west facades;
  • its elements related to the type of the Italian villa, the rectangular plan, the elevation of two and a half stories, hipped roof, the frieze decorated with circles and diamonds, the cornice corbels, balusters and perforated angle braces of gallery and nasturtium doorframes;
  • its openings, casement windows, central double door with framed impost a portal formed by two pilasters supporting an entablature, the eight pediment dormers, louvers with two doors with fixed section in the upper third of the ironwork of the windows;
  • elements of the lateral Annex, the rectangular plan, the elevation of two and a half storey, hipped roof covered with sheet metal rods, brick walls, the brick chimney on the ridge, casement windows, glassed wooden door, wooden frames and stone sills.
The architectural features of the stables include, among others :
  • its volume, the rectangular plan, the elevation of a storey and roof with two rights slopes;
  • its materials, including stone foundations, structure skeleton, the coating clapboard and cedar shingle roof;
  • its decorative elements, the central gable and two ventilation skylights;
  • its openings, window gable surmounting two single doors superimposed high door casement vertical planks left single door transom followed by two large doors casement vertical boards right.
The architectural features of other dependencies include, among others :
  • elements of garage, including rectangular, sliding roof to two right sides and large front sliding doors;
  • elements of the presentation, the square plan, the pavilion roof covered with metal sheet in Canadian style, the clapboard siding and door transom.
The characteristics of the "Manoir de Saint-Ours" domain related to its landscape interest include, among others :
  • the irregular shape of the land;
  • the proximity of the Richelieu River;
  • its plant components, including mature trees, shrubs, flowerbeds, hedges, Charmilles grassed areas, ivy on the annex and rose garden;
  • decorative elements, including pergolas, fountain, the entrance gate and statues;
  • curved driveway leading to the mansion and trails.
Historical information

The history of the "Seigneurie de Saint-Ours" began in 1672, when Jean Talon (1626-1694) grants Pierre de Saint-Ours (1640-1724), captain of the "Régiment de Carignan-Salières", a "seigneurie" located between those of Sorel and Contrecoeur. The first mansion, a house piece by piece, is erected along the Saint-Laurent River, in a sector then known as the "Grand Saint-Ours". The place was abandoned in 1792 when Charles-Louis-Roch de Saint-Ours (1753-1834), the great-grand-son of the first "seigneur", engages master mason Michel Lafleur to build a new mansion near the river Richelieu. The mansion is in the form of a French-inspired stone house. In 1845, the descendants of Charles de Saint-Ours undertake to renovate the mansion. They then appeal to the entrepreneur Joseph Morin. The building was extended, the arrangement of openings is amended and a gallery is added. At this time, work is also done inside. Twenty-five years later, the mansion is subject to further changes. The family of Saint-Ours engages Simon Voyer, recognized entrepreneur of Montreal to perform the work. The residence is a particularly exalted floor and wearing a hip roof with dormers. Since the appearance of the area remained essentially the same.

The "Manoir de Saint-Ours" domain is classified in 1982. In 2006, it is still occupied by descendants of the family of Saint-Ours.

Source : Ministère de la Culture et des Communications of Quebec, 2006.



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